On the foundation, however, of the German customs union, or Zoilverein, between certain German states, the necessity for accurate statistics became apparent and care was taken to compile trustworthy tables, Researches show the population of the German empire, as at present constituted, to have been:
Com,nerce.The rapid development of German trade date from the Zoilverein (customs union), under the special rule and regulations of which it is administered.
Hamburg was to remain outside until 1883; but practically the whole of what now is Germany was thus included in a union in which Prussia had a predominating influence, and to which, when too late, Austria in vain sought admission.i Even in the earlier stages of its development the Zoilverein had a marked effect on the condition of the country.
To the other causes of friction between them had been Austria added, just before the war, a renewed quarrel as to Prussia Austrias relation to the Zoilverein.
After the war Bismarck in fact succeeded in obtaining the signature of the smaller states to the treaty; and Austria, her protests having proved unavailing, was fain to sign a commercial treaty with the Zoilverein, essentially the same as that of 1853.
Italy Prussian attempted to negotiate with Austria for the purchase of ~ Venetia; but the offer was curtly refused by the emperor Francis Joseph, and the counter-proposal of a commercial rapprochement was forestalled by Prussia, which with the aid of most of the lesser states, angered by the betrayal of their interests by Austria at Gastein, arranged a commercial treaty between Italy and the Zoilverein, an act which involved the recognition of the Italian kingdom.
Thus a nucleus and precedent has been formed similar to that by which the Zoilverein was begun, and it was hoped that it might be possible to arrange similar agreements with other states, so that in this way a common management for all lines might be established.
By this Hamburg was to enter the Zoilverein; a part of the harbour was to remain a free port, and the empire contributed two million pounds towards rearranging and enlarging the harbour.
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