In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
With Christian David, a carpenter, at their head, they crossed the border into Saxony, settled down near Count Zinzendorf's estate at Berthelsdorf, and, with his permission, built the town of Herrnhut (17 22-1 7 27).
But under Zinzendorf the history of the Moravians took an entirely new turn.
And yet, on the other hand, Zinzendorf's conception continued long in force.
For a few years they took an active share in the Evangelical Revival (173817S5); but Zinzendorf's "ecclesiola" policy prevented their growth, and not till 1853 did the English Moravians resolve to aim at "the extension of the Brethren's Church."
Bohm.-Bruder (1882); Muller, Das Bischofstum der Bruder-Kirche (1888); Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alien Bruder-Kirche (1900); Die deutschen Katechismen.
Bohm.-Bruder (1887); Becker, Zinzendorf and sein Christentum im Verhaltnis zum kirchlichen u.
For other sources see articles "Bohmische-Bruder" and "Zinzendorf" in Hauck's Realencyklopaedie; and for latest results of historical research, Zeitschrift fur Briidergeschichte (half-yearly).
Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.
In London he met Peter Miller who had been ordained by Zinzendorf for work in Carolina.
A colony of these people, fleeing from persecution in Moravia, settled at Herrnhut in 1722 on a site presented by Count Zinzendorf.
Bengel (better known as a commentator), Zinzendorf, Butler and the Erskines helped to redeem the time from the reproach of being the dark age of Protestantism.
AUGUST GOTTLIEB SPANGENBERG (1704-1792), Count Zinzendorf's successor, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren, was born on the 15th of July 1704 at Klettenberg, on the south of the Harz Mountains, where his father, Georg Spangenberg, was court preacher and ecclesiastical inspector of the countship of Hohenstein.
In 1728 Count Zinzendorf visited Jena, and Spangenberg made his acquaintance; in 1730 he visited the Moravian colony at Herrnhut.
Spangenberg's participation in private observances of the Lord's Supper and his intimate connexion with Count Zinzendorf brought matters to a crisis.
He was offered by the senate of the theological faculty of Halle the alternative of doing penance before God, submitting to his superiors, and separating himself from Zinzendorf, or leaving the matter to the decision of the king, unless he preferred to "leave Halle quietly."
At first he went to Jena, but Zinzendorf at once sought to secure him as a fellow labourer, though the count wished to obtain from him a declaration which would remove from the Pietists of Halle all blame with regard to the disruption.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
Zinzendorf's death (1760) had left room and need for his labours at home.
As compared with Zinzendorf's own writings, this book exhibits the finer balance and greater moderation of Spangenberg's nature, while those offensive descriptions of the relation of the sinner to Christ in which the Moravians at first indulged are almost absent from it.
In addition to the Idea fidei fratrum, Spangenberg wrote, besides other apologetic books, a Declaration fiber die seither gegen uns ausgegangenen Beschuldigungen sonderlich die Person unseres Ordinarius (Zinzendorf) betreffend (Leipzig, 1751), an Apologetische Schlussschrift (1752), Leben des Grafen Zinzendorf (r77 2-1775); and his hymns are well known beyond the Moravian circle.
Bethlehem was founded by the Moravians, led by Count Nikolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, shortly before Christmas in 1741, and the season of the year suggested its name; for the first century of its existence it was almost exclusively a settlement of that sect, and it is still their American headquarters.
At Lindsey House Count Zinzendorf established a Moravian Society (c. 1750).
Among its greatest achievements, apart from the philanthropic institutions founded at Halle, were the organization of the Moravian Church in 1727 by Count von Zinzendorf, Spener's godson and a pupil in the Halle Orphanage, and the establishment of the great Protestant missions, Ziegenbalg and others being the pioneers of an enterprise which until this time Protestantism had strangely neglected.
For some reason he incurred the disfavour of Zinzendorf and fled to Holland, where with the aid of the government he continued his experiments.
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