Zeuner's formula for steam), but they cannot be made to represent with sufficient approximation the deviations from the ideal state at moderate pressures and generally lead to erroneous results.
A more complete and more elaborate treatment of the subject will be found in foreign treatises, such as those of Clausius, Zeuner, Duhem, Bertrand, Planck and others.
Zeuner, at a later date (La Chaleur, p.441) employing the empirical, formula pv= BO +Cp 25 for saturated steam, found the value S = 568, which further increased the discrepancy.
Perry (Steam Engine, p. 580), assuming a characteristic equation similar to Zeuner's (which makes v a linear function of the temperature at constant pressure, and S independent of the pressure), calculates S as a function of the temperature to satisfy Regnault's formula (10) for the total heat.
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