Zeuner's formula for steam), but they cannot be made to represent with sufficient approximation the deviations from the ideal state at moderate pressures and generally lead to erroneous results.

00A more complete and more elaborate treatment of the subject will be found in foreign treatises, such as those of Clausius, Zeuner, Duhem, Bertrand, Planck and others.

00Zeuner, at a later date (La Chaleur, p.441) employing the empirical, formula pv= BO +Cp 25 for saturated steam, found the value S = 568, which further increased the discrepancy.

00Perry (Steam Engine, p. 580), assuming a characteristic equation similar to Zeuner's (which makes v a linear function of the temperature at constant pressure, and S independent of the pressure), calculates S as a function of the temperature to satisfy Regnault's formula (10) for the total heat.

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