m.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
Some of the most daring spirits waged war on their conquerors from Clissa in Dalmatia, and afterwards from Zengg in maritime Croatia, where they formed the notorious pirate community of the Uskoks.
As shipping stations, Buccari, Portore, Selce, Novi, Zengg, San Giorgio, Jablanac and Carlopago are of comparative insignificance.
Clissa, however, became untenable, and the Uskoks withdrew to Zengg, on the Croatian coast, where, in accordance with the Austrian system of planting colonies of defenders along the Military Frontier, they were welcomed by the Emperor Ferdinand I., and promised an annual subsidy in return for their services.
Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Zengg, which is shallow and exposed to sudden gales, so the Uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the Illyrian shore, and easily sunk and recovered, if a temporary landing became necessary.
In 1592 a Turkish army invaded Croatia, hoping to capture Zengg, but it was routed and dispersed in the following year.
They also erected two forts to command the passages from Zengg to the open sea.
In 1602 a raid by the Uskoks upon Istria resulted in an agreement between Venice and Austria, and the despatch to Zengg of the energetic commissioner Rabatta with a strong bodyguard.
Rabatta was murdered, the fugitive Uskoks returned to Zengg and piracy was resumed, with varying fortunes, until 1615, when a grosser outrage than usual led to open war between Venice and Austria.
They comprise the Uskoken Gebirge, or Uskoks Mountains, named after the piratical Uskoks of Zengg, who were deported hither after the fall of their stronghold in 1617; the Warasdin Mountains, with the peak of Ivanscica (3478 ft.); the Agram Mountains, culminating in Sljeme or Slema (3396 ft.), and including the beautiful stretches of Alpine pasture known as the Zagorje, or "land beyond the hills"; the Bilo Gebirge, or White Mountains, a low range of chalk, and, farther to the south, several groups of mountains, among which Psunj (3228 ft.), Papuk (3217 ft.) Crni Vrh (2833 ft.), and the Ravna Gora (2808 ft.) are the chief summits.
being the Maria Louisa, which connects Karlstadt with Fiume, and the Josephina, which passes inland from Zengg.
The principal towns are Agram, the capital, with 61,002 inhabitants in 190o; Esseg, the capital of Slavonia (2 4,93 0); Semlin (15,079); Mitrovica (11,518); Warasdin (12,930); Karlstadt (7396); Brod (7310); Sissek (7047); Djakovo (6824); Karlowitz (5643); Peterwardein (5019); Zengg (3182); and Buccari (1870).
Fully four-fifths of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church, which has an archbishop at Agram and bishops at Zengg and Djakovo.
Throughout the century the Turks continued to extend their conquests until, in 1606, the emperor retained only western Croatia, with the cities of Agram, Karlstadt, Warasdin and Zengg.
As a separate division of the monarchy it owed its existence to the necessity of maintaining during the, 6th and 17th centuries a strong line of defence against the invasions of the Turks, and may be said to have had its origin with the establishment of the captaincy of Zengg (a coast town about 35 m.
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