Very curious, in relation to modern evolutional ideas, is the Stoical doctrine that our world is but one of a series of exactly 1 Zeller says that through this distinction Aristotle first made possible the idea of development.
The transition from the 4 Zeller observes that this scale of decreasing perfection is a necessary consequence of the idea of a transcendent deity.
Nature (says Zeller) is to Hegel a system of gradations, of which one arises necessarily out of the other, and is the proximate truth of that out of which it results.
Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools, Eng.
i.); compare with these the works on the history of philosophy by Ritter, Erdmann, Ueberweg and Zeller.
Zeller, Handbuch der Verfassung and Verwaltung im Grossherzogtum Hessen (Darmstadt, 1885-1893).
The supposition of such influence is favoured by some critics (Tyler, Plumptre, Palm, Siegfried, Cheyne in his Jewish Religious Life after the Exile, and others), rejected by some (Zeller, Renan, Kleinert and others).
See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.
In 1896 he succeeded Eduard Zeller as professor of moral philosophy at Berlin.
According to Zeller, the discrepancy is only apparent.
This reconciliation of the internal and the external evidence, countenanced as it is by Theophrastus, one of the best informed of the ancient historians, and approved by Zeller, one of the most learned of the modern critics, is more than plausible; but there is something to be said on the contrary part.
See Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen, iii.
de l'Ain (1884); Berthold Zeller, Les Armagnacs et les Bourguignons, la Commune de 1413; E.
See Zeller's History of Greek Philosophy; E.
Zeller, Louis de France et Jean sans Peur (Paris, 1886); and E.
438-475 and 586-592, Zeller, Ueberweg, Erdmann, and works quoted under Sophists.
(Xabout zoo; after Zeller.) C, Microcotyle mormyri.
(Natural size; after Zeller.) E, Bucephalus polymorphus.
Eduard Zeller >>
The former course has been adopted by Schwegler,5 Zeller,' and Hilgenfeld, 7 the latter by Ritschl $ and Lipsius?
Zeller, Etudes critiques sur le regne de Louis XIII.: le connetable de Luynes, Montauban et la Valteline (Paris, 1879); E.
Darstellung der Jiidisch-Alexandrinischen Religionsphilosophie (1834); Histories of Philosophy by Zeller, Ueberweg, Windelband, &c., and Bibliography of Church History, &c.
Also Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools; Dyeck, De Megaricorum doctrines (Bonn, 1827); Mallet, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare (Paris, 1845); Ritter, Ober die Philosophie der r meg.
As to the Gospel's date, critics have returned from 160-170 (Baur), i 50 (Zeller), 130 (Keim), to 110-115 (Renan) and 80-110 (Harnack): since Irenaeus says its author lived into the times of Trajan (90-117), a date somewhere about 105 would satisfy tradition.
Kritiken, Eduard Zeller's Theologische Jahrbucher, and Adolf Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Theologie.
See Edward Zeller, Vortrdge, vol.
Both Zeller and Hegel remark upon the difference between the calm of ancient scepticism and the perturbed state of mind evinced by many modern sceptics.
Ancient scepticism is fully treated in the relative parts of Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen.
See Hedonism, EPICUxus; histories of philosophy by Zeller, Windelband, tUeberweg; H.
" It was reserved for Proclus," says Zeller, " to bring the Neoplatonic philosophy to its formal conclusion by the rigorous consistency of his dialectic, and, keeping in view all the modifications which it had undergone in the course of two centuries, to give it that form in which it was transferred to Christianity and Mahommedanism in the middle ages."
King's Gnostics, Zeller's Plato, the works on magic by Dunlop, E.
[Supposed by Zeller to belong to the latter half of the 1st century B.C.] 6.7repi iiuxiis: De anima: On soul, conjoined with organic body.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 19.7rEpL 7ropetas: De animalium incessu: On the going of animals.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 22.1 7repi a.Kovarwv: De audibilibus.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 234 4,vacoyvw,uovtci: Physiognomonica: On physiognomy, and the sympathy of body and soul.
C. Miscellaneous 1.1 Hpo/ Xb,LCara: Problemata: Problems on various subjects [gradually collected by the Peripatetics from partly Aristotelian materials, according to Zeller].
[Ascribed to Theophrastus, or his time, by Zeller.] 3.t avEpwv 9eaees Kai 7rpoa7 7 yoptaL: Ventorum situs et appellationes: A fragment on the winds.
[According to Zeller, an abstract of the Nicomachean and the Eudemian Ethics, tending to follow the latter, but possibly an early draft of the Nicomachean Ethics.] 3 'H9LKa EbSi) pea or 7rpos Ebbnp.ov: Ethica ad Eudemum: On the same subject.
[The first book a work of the school of Theophrastus or Eudemus, the second later Peripatetic, according to Zeller.] 7repi De virtutibus et vitiis: On virtues I.
Zeller supposes that, though Aristotle may have made preparations for his philosophical system beforehand, still the properly didactic treatises composing it almost all belong to the last period of his life, i.e.
from 335-334 to 322; and from the references of one work to another Zeller has further suggested a chronological order of composition during this period of twelve years, beginning with the treatises on Logic and Physics, and ending with that on Metaphysics.
To save his hypothesis of late composition, Zeller resorts to the vagueness of the word " now " (vuv).
It is agreed, says Zeller, that the traditional order contradicts the original plan.
It is not spurious, as some have supposed, nor later than the De Anima, as Zeller thought, but Aristotle in an earlier frame of mind.
Zeller, indeed, has attempted an exact order of succession: 1.
But Zeller does not give enough weight either to the evidence of early composition contained in the Politics and Meteorology, or to the evidence of subsequent contemporaneous composition contained in the cross-references, e.g between the Physics and the Metaphysics.
Moreover, the arrangement sometimes breaks down: for example, though on the whole the logical books are quoted without quoting the rest, the De Interpretatione (chap. 1) quotes the De Anima, and therefore is falsely taken by Zeller against its own internal evidence to be subsequent to it and consequently to the other logical books.
2, 372 b 9) quotes the De Sensu (c. 3), and therefore, on Zeller's arguments, ought to follow one of the Parva Naturalia.
Zeller tries to get over this difficulty of cross-reference by detaching Metaphysics, Book A, from the rest and placing it before the Physics.
With Aristotle's works before one, with the Index Aristotelicus, and the edition and translation of the Metaphysics by Bonitz on one side, and Zeller's Die Philosophie der Griechen, ii.
Martin, Krauses Leben and Bedeutung (1881), and Histories of Philosophy by Zeller, Windelband and Hoffding.
Zeller, "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Stoikers Panatius" in Cornmentationes philologae in honorem Th.
Zeller, Geschichte d.
See Boeckh, Philolaus des Pythagoreers Lehren nebst den Bruchstiicken seines Werkes (Berlin, 1819); Schaarschmidt, Die angebliche Schriftstellerei des Philolaus (1864); also Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca; Zeller, History of Greek Philosophy; Chaignet, Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne, contenant les fragments de Philolaus et d'Architas (1873); Th.
Zeller thinks that his ancestors belonged to the Cadmean tribe in Boeotia, who were intermingled with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and thus reconciles the conflicting statements.
The date 586 B.C., given above, which is taken from Clinton, is adopted by Zeller.
C. Zeller's Alpentiere im Wechsel der Zeit (1892) gives a reliable account of the gradual disappearance of some of the larger forms of life from the Alps.
Zeller, Philosophy of the Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (Eng.
See Pythagoras, Neoplatonism, Essenes; and Zeller's Philosophie d.
Zeller, History of Greek Philosophy; C. E.
Zeller, Friedrich der Grosse als Philosoph (Berlin, 1886); H.
1867); Zeller, Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie (2nd ed., 18 75, pp. 243-46).
Zeller's Outlines of Gk.
Zeller has shown that the authority on which this view is based is entirely unsound.
Zeller, Philosophie d.
The Kirchengeschichte was published in five volumes during the years 1853-1863, partly by Baur himself, partly by his son, Ferdinand Baur, and his son-in-law, Eduard Zeller, from notes and lectures which the author left behind him.
EDUARD ZELLER (1814-1908), German philosopher, was born at Kleinbottwar in Wurttemberg on the 22nd of January 1814, and educated at the university of Tubingen and under the influence of Hegel.
In this syllogistic analysis two points must always be considered: one, that we usually use premises in thought which we do not express; and the other, that we sometimes use them unconsciously, and therefore infer and reason unconsciously, in the manner excellently described by Zeller in his Vortrage, iii.
Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen, ii.
13 Zeller (loc. cit.
1087a Zeller loc. cit.
Zeller, however, in his Outlines of Greek Philosophy (1886, Eng.
i.; Zeller's History of Greek Philosophy; J.
Zeller, a follower of Baur, adopted this latter alternative, and P. W.
As Zeller points out, however, there is reason to think that his doctrines were rather those of the earlier Platonists than those of Plotinus.
Zeller, "Ammonius Saccas and Plotinus," Arch.
- The best modern authority is Zeller, Phil.
Zeller, Pre-Socratic Philosophy (Eng.
Zeller (1876-1878), without his Christliche Dogmatik.
Zeller, David Friedrich Strauss in seinem Leben and seinen Schriften (1874); A.
History), Schwegler (Nachap. Zeitalt.), Zeller, Volkmar (Z.
It was only in the Alexandrian period, as Zeller points out, that the special sciences attained to independent cultivation.
Zeller's History of Greek Philosophy still holds the field as the best continuous exposition of the subject, but more recent work in the early period is represented by H.
Burnet, while Zeller's view of Plato may be said to have been superseded by the later researches of Lewis Campbell, H.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-A good account of Theophrastus is found in Zeller, Aristotle and the Earlier Peripatetics (Eng.
1; Zeller, Die Philosophie d.
Here we need only mention the litaniae which are stated by Usener ("Alte Bittgange," in Zeller, Philosophische Aufsatze, p. 278 seq.) to have been first instituted by Pope Liberius (352-366).
The foregoing statement of Parmenides's position differs from Zeller's account of it in two important particulars.
First, whereas it has been assumed above that Xenophanes was theologian rather than philosopher, whence it would seem to follow that the philosophical doctrine of unity originated, not with him, but with Parmenides, Zeller, supposing Xenophanes to have taught, not merely the unity of God, but also the unity of Being, assigns to Parmenides no more than an exacter conception of the doctrine of the unity of Being, the justification of that doctrine, and the denial of the plurality and the mutability of things.
Secondly, whereas it has been argued 'above that " Opinion " is necessarily included in the system, Zeller, supposing Parmenides to deny the Nonent even as a matter of opinion, regards that part of the poem which has opinion for its subject as no more than a revised and improved statement of the views of opponents, introduced in order that the reader, having before him the false doctrine as well as the true one, may be led the more certainly to embrace the latter.
Zeller (Leipzig, 1876, - an attempt to show that Philostratus's story is merely a pagan counterblast to the New Testament history); J.
See Zeller's History of Greek Philosophy; F.
Zeller ("Zur Ehrenrettung der Xanthippe," in his Vortrage and Abhandlungen, i., 1875).
88, and Zeller's Greek Philosophy.
See also the histories of philosophy and theology by Zeller, Ueberweg, Chalybdus, Dorner, Gass, Lichtenberger (Eng.
In short, the ordinary belief in plurality and motion seemed to him to involve fatal inconsistencies, whence he inferred that Parmenides was justified in distinguishing the mutable movable Many from the 1 See Zeller, Die Philosophic d.
266 seq.; Zeller, Die Philosophie d.
Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen (Eng.
(For its relation to the New Academy and to scepticism in general see Scepticism and Megarian School Of Philosophy.) See histories of philosophy by Zeller, Erdmann, Ueberweg; Ritter and Preller, § 364; Waddington, Pyrrhon et le pyrrhonisme (1877); Zimmermann, Darstellung d.
The traits common to Neoplatonism and all these speculations are well summed up by Zeller (Philos.
[An eclectic work of the 1st century B.C., half Academic and half Peripatetic, according to Zeller.] 5.
If we consider how Philo, while remaining a devout Jew in religion, yet managed to assimilate the whole Stoic philosophy, we can well believe that the Essenes might have been influenced, as Zeller maintained that they were, by Neo-Pythagoreanism.
The original sources of our knowledge of the Essenes have been mentioned at the beginning of this paper; the best modern discussions of them are to be found in such works as Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen, vol.
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