In the conclave of 1823, in spite of the active opposition of France, he was elected pope by the zelanti on the 28th of September.
In the case of Germany he made many concessions which appeared to the Zelanti to be excessive, and made even still greater ones to France and Russia, to the great distress of the Poles.
This was followed by La Nuova Italia ed i Vecchi Zelanti (1881), another attack on the Vatican policy; and by his Vaticano Regio (1883), in which he accuses the Vatican of trafficking in holy things and declares that the taint of worldliness came from the false principles accepted by the Curia.
(February 1878) his successor, Leo XIII., at once showed himself willing to come to terms. Negotiations were long and difficult; for Bismarck would not abolish the May laws outright, and Leo had much ado to hold in check the zelanti of the Vatican.
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