He was finally routed at Temesvar by the combined forces of Janos Zapolya and Istvan Bathory, was captured, and condemned to sit on a red-hot iron throne, with a red-hot iron crown on his head and a red-hot sceptre in his hand.
Zapolya king of Hungary (1528).
Meanwhile Ferdinand's troops captured Budapest, driving out Zapolya, who at once appealed to Suleiman for aid.
Zapolya joined the Turks at Mohacs, and a joint attack was made on Budapest.
After five days' siege the Austrians were driven out, and Zapolya was reinstated on the throne of Hungary.
In 1533 a truce was arranged, Hungary being divided between Zapolya and Ferdinand.
Friendly relations had subsisted between Suleiman and Ferdinand during the expedition to Persia; but on the death of Zapolya in 1539 Ferdinand claimed Hungary and besieged Budapest with a large force.
Suleiman determined to support the claims of Zapolya's infant son, John Sigismund, and in 15 4 set out in person.
The Turks had no sooner quitted the land than John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, assembled a diet at Tokaj (Oct.
In 1529 Zapolya was reinstated in Buda by Suleiman the Magnificent in person, who, at this period, preferred setting up a rival to " the king of Vienna " to conquering Hungary outright.
By this treaty Ferdinand retained Croatia-Slavonia and the five western counties with Pressburg and Esztergom (Gran), while Zapolya kept the remaining two-thirds with the royal title.
Zapolya, a devout Catholic, is lauded by Archbishop Frangipan in 1533 for arresting the spread of the new doctrines, though he would not allow Martinuzzi to take the extreme step of burning perverts at the stake.
In 1514 the peasant leader, Stephan Dozsa, was defeated by the Transylvanian voivod, John Zapolya, near Temesvar, captured and executed.
Immediately after the death of King Louis, who fell on the field of battle, the emperor Ferdinand and John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, competed for the vacant crown, and both were elected almost simultaneously.
In Poland Zapolya's was the popular cause, and he also found powerful support in the influential and highly gifted Laski family, as represented by the Polish chancellor and his nephews John and Hieronymus.
More than once, indeed, Sigismund was seriously compromised by the diplomatic vagaries of Hieronymus Laski, who entered the service of Zapolya (since 1529 the protege of the sultan), and greatly alarmed both the emperor and the pope by his disturbing philo-Turk proclivities.
On the death of John Zapolya, the Austro-Polish alliance was still further cemented by the marriage of Sigismund's son and heir, Sigismund Augustus, with the archduchess Elizabeth.
1512), to marry, was Barbara Zapolya, whose family as represented first by her father Stephen and subsequently by her brother John, dominated Hungarian politics in the last quarter of the 15th and the first quarter of the 16th century.
By Bona he had five children - one son, Sigismund Augustus, who succeeded him, and four daughters, Isabella, who married John Zapolya, prince of Transylvania, Sophia, who married the duke of Brunswick, Catherine, who as the wife of John III.
In John Zapolya, who was supported by Suleiman, Ferdinand found an active rival.
of Austria and his rival John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania.
Matters grew even worse on the death of Bakocz, when the magnates Istvan Bathory, Janos Zapolya and Istvan Verboczy fought each other furiously, and used the diets as their tools.
The government remained in the hands of Cardinal Bakocz till his death in 1521, when the supreme authority at court was disputed between the lame palatine Istvan Bathory, and his rival, the eminent jurist and orator Istvan Verbdczy (q.v.), - both of them incompetent, unprincipled place-hunters, - while, in the background lurked Janos Zapolya (see John (Zapolya), King Of Hungary), voivode of Tran sylvania, patiently waiting till the death of the feeble and childless king (who, in 1522, married Maria of Austria) should open for him a way to the throne.
The tone of the assembly being violently Zapolya anti-German, and John being the only conceivable elected national candidate, his election was a matter of course; King.
astounding diplomatic dexterity, and at the same time introducing several important domestic reforms. Zapolya died on the 18th of July 1540, whereupon the estates of Hungary elected his baby son John Sigismund king, in direct violation of the peace of Grosswardein which had formally acknowledged Ferdinand as John's successor, whether he left male issue or not.
more than justified him, and the long duel which ensued between Ferdinand and Zapolya (see Hungary: History) enabled the Polish monarch to maintain to the end a cautious but observant neutrality.
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