Eighteen months later (Dec. 14, 1575), mainly through the influence of Jan Zamoyski, Stephen Bathory, prince of Transylvania, was elected king of Poland by the szlachta in opposition to the emperor Maximilian, who had been elected two days previously by the senate, after disturbances which would have rent any other state but Poland to pieces.
The adhesion of the same monarch to the League of the Catholic Reaction certainly added to the difficulties of Polish diplomacy, and still further divided the already distracted diet, besides alienating from the court the powerful and popular chancellor Zamoyski.
Nicholas Zebrzydowski, a follower of the chancellor Zamoyski, was one of the wealthiest and most respectable magnates in Poland.
Disappointed in his hope of obtaining the great seal on the death of Zamoyski, he at once conceived that the whole of the nobility had been insulted in his person, and proceeded to make all government impossible for the next three years.
Another university was founded later at Vilna by Batory, and one at Zamosc by the chancellor Zamoyski.
It was acted on the marriage of the chancellor Jan Zamoyski with Christine Radziwill, in the presence of King Stephen and his wife, at Ujazdowo near Warsaw in 1578.
His first military service at home was against the Cossack rising of Nalewajko as lieutenant to Zolkiewski, and he subsequently assisted Zamoyski in his victorious Moldavian campaign.
Educated as a Catholic by his mother, he was on the death of Stephen Bathory elected king of Poland (August 19, 1587) chiefly through the efforts of the Polish chancellor, Jan Zamoyski, and of his own aunt, Anne, queen-dowager of Poland, who lent the chancellor 10o,000 gulden to raise troops in defence of her nephew's cause.
Even Zamoyski who had placed him on the throne complained that the king was possessed by a dumb devil.
Yet, impracticable as it may have been, Sigismund's system of foreign policy as compared with Zamoyski's was, at any rate, clear and definite.
The first three-andtwenty years of Sigismund's reign is the record of an almost constant struggle between Zamoyski and the king, in which the two opponents were so evenly matched that they did little more than counterpoise each other.
At the diet of 1590 Zamoyski successfully thwarted all the efforts of the Austrian party; whereupon the king, taking advantage of sudden vacancies among the chief offices of state, brought into power the Radziwills and other great Lithuanian dignitaries, thereby for a time considerably curtailing the authority of the chancellor.
This most simple and salutary reform was, however, rendered nugatory by the opposition of Zamoyski, and his death the same year made matters still worse, as it left the opposition in the hands of men violent and incapable, like Nicholas Zebrzydowski, or sheer scoundrels, like Stanislaw Stadnicki.
During the interregnum in Poland after the death of Henry of Valois, Zolkiewski was an ardent partisan of the chancellor Zamoyski, and supported the candidature of Stephen Bathory, under whose banner he learned the art of war in the Muscovite campaigns.
On the death of Stephen, Zolkiewski vigorously supported the policy of Zamoyski, and took an active part in the battle of Byczyna, when the Austrian archduke Maximilian was defeated by the Polish chancellor.
On Michael's murder the Poles under Zamoyski again asserted their supremacy, but in 1618 the Porte once more recovered its dominion and set up successively two creatures of its own as voivodes - Gratiani, an Italian who had been court jeweller, and a Greek custom-house official, Alexander.
JAN ZAMOYSKI (1541-1605), Polish statesman, was the son of Stanislaw, Castellan of Chelm, and Anna Herburtowna, who belonged to one of the most ancient and illustrious families in Poland.
After the flight of that prince Zamoyski seems to have aimed at the throne himself, but quickly changed his mind and threw all his abilities into the scale in favour of Stephen Bathory and against the Austrian influence.
By his advice, at the beginning of January 1576 a diet was summoned to Jedrzejow to confirm the election of Bathory, and from the time of that monarch's arrival in Poland till his death ten years later Zamoyski was his foremost counsellor.
Immediately after the coronation, on the 1st of May 1576, Zamoyski was appointed chancellor, and in 1580 wielki hetman, or commander-in-chief, so that he was now the second highest dignitary in the kingdom.
On the death of Stephen, the Zborowski recovered their influence and did their utmost to keep Zamoyski in the background.
Zamoyski was at first in favour of a member of the Báthory family, with which he was united by ties of amity and mutual interest; but on becoming convinced of the impossibility of any such candidature, he pronounced for a native Pole, or for whichever foreign prince might be found most profitable to Poland.
The Habsburgs, already sure of the Zborowski, bid very high for the support of Zamoyski.
But Zamoyski traversed all the plans of the Austrian faction by routing the archduke at the battle of Byczyna (January 24, 1588) and taking him prisoner.
Each had his own plan for coping with the difficulties of the situation; but while Zamoyski regarded the Habsburgs with suspicion, Sigismund III.
Zamoyski feared their influence upon Poland, which he would have made the head of the Slavonic powers by its own endeavours.
Zamoyski was undoubtedly most jealous of his dignity; his patriotism was seldom proof against private pique; and he was not always particular in his choice of means.
The ill-will between the king and the chancellor reached an acute stage when Sigismund appointed an opponent of Zamoyski vice-chancellor, and made other ministerial changes which limited his authority; though ultimately, with the aid of his partisans and the adoption of such desperate expedients as the summoning of a confederation to annul the royal decrees in 1592, Zamoyski recovered his full authority.
In 1595 Zamoyski, in his capacity of commanderin-chief, at the head of S000 veterans dethroned the anti-Polish hospodar of Moldavia and installed in his stead a Catholic convert, George Mohila.
But beyond securing the Polish frontier Zamoyski would never go.
The refusal of the Austrians to accept these reasonable terms justified Zamoyski's suspicion that the league would use Poland as a cat's-paw, and the negotiations came to nothing.
Statesman though he was, Zamoyski cannot, however, be called a true patriot.
These reforms Zamoyski strenuously opposed.
Henriette had accepted in the family of Count Zamoyski an engagement more lucrative than her former place.
Zamoyski was at first in favour of a member of the BÃ¡thory family, with which he was united by ties of amity and mutual interest; but on becoming convinced of the impossibility of any such candidature, he pronounced for a native Pole, or for whichever foreign prince might be found most profitable to Poland.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.