after ioi~ Zain al-din al Karami, d.
These are: (a) how Greek utilized the four sibilants (Shin, Samech, Zain and Zade), which it took over from the Phoenician; (b) what was the history of development in the symbols for cl), x, 4', w (the history of E belongs to both heads); (c) the history of the symbol for the digamma F.
In the Phoenician alphabet Zain was the seventh letter, occupying the same position and having the same form approximately (i) as the early Greek Z, while in pronunciation it was a voiced s-sound; Samech () followed the 'symbol for n of and was the ordinary s-sound, though, as we have seen, e it is in different Greek states at the earliest period as well as E; after the symbol for p came Zade (v), which was a strong palatal s, though in name it corresponds to the Greek Nra; while lastly Shin (W) follows the symbol for r, and was an sh-sound.
The confusion is thus extreme: the name Zade assimilated in Greek to the names ajra and B41ra becomes slira, though the form is that of Zain; the name of Samech is possibly the origin of Sigma, while the form of Samech is that of = which has not taken over a Phoenician name.
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