Bavaria has been ruled by the Wittelsbachs.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
The Wittelsbachs gave three kings to Germany, Louis IV.,' Rupert and Charles VII.
In 1 533 it was raised to a margraviate by the emperor Charles V., and wds held by various families until in 1799 it passed, through the Sultzbach branch of the Wittelsbachs, to the royal house of Bavaria, by whom it was renounced in favour of the Batavian republic in 1801.
At his death, without issue, on the 30th of December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore, the elector palatine.
The Golden Bull, promulgated in January 1356 and again after some tedious negotiations in December of the same year, fixed the number of electors at seven, SaxeWittenberg and not Saxe-Lauenburg obtaining the Saxon vote, and the vote of the Wittelsbachs being given to the ruler of the Rhenjsh Palatinate and not to the duke of Bavaria.
Envoys were sent repeatedly to France, England and Denmark; Turkey and Venice were looked to for assistance; the jealousy felt towards the Habsburgs by the Bavarian Wittelsbachs was skilfully fomented; and the German Protestants were assured that attack was the best, nay the only, means of defence.
or V., Brandenburg was administered by Bertold, count of Henneberg, who established the authority of the Wittelsbachs in the middle mark, which, centring round Berlin, was the most important part of the margraviate.
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