The French legend of the knight of the swan is attached to the house of Bouillon, and although William of Tyre refers to it about 1170 as fable, it was incorporated without question by later annalists.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
Until about 1840 the authority followed for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth, enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned; while the Historia orientalis of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition).
Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and H.
Of Christian authorities the following are important, the history of William of Tyre (1137-1185), the Itinerarium peregrinorum, probably the Latin version of the Carmen Ainbrosii (ed.
He was something of a scholar, and it was he who set William of Tyre to work.
- The narrative of William of Tyre concludes with Baldwin IV.'s transfer of the regency to Raymund of Tripoli.
cii.), William of Tyre tells us that he spent his spare time in reading and had a particular affection for history; that he was well skilled in the jus consuetudinarium of the kingdom (afterwards recorded by lawyers like John of Ibelin and Philip of Novara as "the assizes of Jerusalem"); and that he had the royal faculty for remembering faces, and could generally be trusted to address by name anybody whom he had once met, so that he was more popular with high and low than any of his predecessors.
- William of Tyre is the great primary authority for his reign; Cinnamus and Ibn-al-athir (see Bibliography to the article CRUSADES) give the Byzantine and Mahommedan point of view.
The legend is without any basis in fact, though it appears in the pages of William of Tyre.
It also appears in the pages of Albert of Aix, who wrote somewhere about 1130; and from Albert it was borrowed by William of Tyre.
This saga found its most piquant beginning in the Hermit's vision at Jerusalem, and there it accordingly began - alike in Albert, followed by William of Tyre and in the Chanson des chetifs, followed by the later Chanson d'Antioche.
The last two facts are attested by William of Tyre and Barhebraeus.
down to 1 127; for the rest of the reign the authority is William of Tyre.
(d) William of Tyre is the scientific historian and rationalizer, weaving into a harmonious account, which was followed by historians for centuries, the sober accounts of eye-witnesses and the picturesque details of the saga - with somewhat of a bias towards the latter in regard to the First Crusade.