But Wellhausen 1 is probably right in taking the word as a contraction for Hagariah ("Yahweh hath girded"), just as Zaccai (Zacchaeus) is known to be a contraction of Zechariah.
Wellhausen (3rd ed., 1898); or with the other post-exile prophets, as by Kohler, Pressel (Gotha, 1870), Dods (1879) and others.
So, brilliantly, Wellhausen's Gospel commentaries and Introduction.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
p. 157 foil.), as well as Wellhausen, and since then by Jacobs and Zapletal (Der Totemismus u.
The religion of Yahweh (as Wellhausen said) meant patriotism, and in war-time tended to weld the participating tribes into a national unity.
The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.
Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.), p. 89.
The existence of the purer and larger conception of Yahweh's character and power before the advent of Amos indicates that the transition from the past was not so sudden as Wellhausen's graphic portrayal in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia (art.
In Wellhausen's words, each petty state " revolved on its own axis " of social-religious life till the armies of Tiglath-Pileser III.
But Ezekiel was, as Wellhausen well describes him, " a priest in prophet's mantle."
On Semitic religion generally: Wellhausen's Reste des arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) and Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites (2nd ed.) are chiefly to be recommended.
Wellhausen's Prolegomena and Jiidische Geschichte should be read both for criticism and Hebrew history generally.
Wellhausen (especially Prolegomena to the Hist.
Wellhausen, De gentibus et familiis Judaeis (Gottingen, 1870); Prolegomena (Eng.
Wellhausen, "fiber den geschichtlichen Wert des 2ten Makkabaerbuchs," Nachrichten d.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
The suggestion has been made by Wellhausen and Robertson Smith that the Passover was, in its original form, connected with the sacrifice of the firstlings, and the latter points to the Arabic annual sacrifices called Atair, which some of the lexicographers interpret as firstlings.
The suggestion of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith confuses the offering of firstlings (Arabic Fara') and that of the first yeanlings of the year in the spring (Arabic Atair).
Wellhausen, Reste arab.
Wellhausen's views are given in his Prolegomena, ch.
(i)The first of these, represented by Giesebrecht,' Nowack and Wellhausen, refers i.
As Wellhausen says (p. 171): "The poet appears to believe that in the very act of describing enthusiastically the ancient deed of deliverance, he brings home to us the new; we are left sometimes in doubt whether he speaks of the past to suggest the new by analogy, or whether he is concerned directly with the future, and simply paints it with the colours of the past."
References to earlier literature will be found in the following noteworthy studies of recent date: Davidson, "Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah," in Cambridge Bible (1896); Nowack, Die kleinen Propheten (Hdkr.) (1897); Wellhausen, Die kleinen Propheten (1898); G.
s See Wellhausen, Geschichte Israels, p. 78 seq.; Prolegomena zur Gesch.
JULIUS WELLHAUSEN (1844-), German biblical scholar and Orientalist, was born at Hameln on the Weser, Westphalia, on the 17th of May 1844.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
(1892); Wellhausen, in Sacred Books of the Old Test.
Wellhausen, Archiv f.
by Wellhausen) that the 25th of Kislev was an old pagan festival, perhaps the day of the winter solstice.
I See Wellhausen, Gesch.
Wellhausen, who made extensive alterations and additions; (2) his Introduction to the New Testament (3rd ed., W.
Wellhausen in Skizzen and Vorarbeiten, Berlin, 1884).
Wellhausen has thoroughly examined the work of Saif in Skizzen and Vorarbeiten, vi.
Wellhausen (Isr. and Jild.
His reconquest of Babylon in 520 may, in particular, have seemed the prelude to the Messianic age (Wellhausen, Gesch., p. 161 n.).
3 What follows is summarized from Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, pp. 190, 192, 195-197.
On the other hand, Marti assigns the whole to 160 B.C. (Maccabean period; a little later than Wellhausen) and sees a number of references to historical personages of that age.
2, 1903); Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, 3 (1898); G.
by Wellhausen is a revision of his article in the 9th edition of the Ency.
" He rides through the air, He blows " (Wellhausen), would be a fit name for a god of wind and storm.
On the other hand it has been urged that the passage belongs to a later stage of prophetic thought than the 8th century B.C. Reasons making this view the more probable one are given by Wellhausen (p. 342) and Marti (p. 281).
30-34 may possibly belong to Micah; Wellhausen recognizes the same possibility, which he extends, however, to vi.
Wellhausen, however, remarks with justice that the thread is abruptly broken at vii.
Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten (3rd ed., 1898).
Reuss, but since Graf was the first to introduce it into Germany, the theory, as developed by Julius Wellhausen, has been called the GrafWellhausen hypothesis.
- NOWaCk, Die kleinen Propheten (1897; 2nd ed., 1904); Wellhausen, id.
On the latter view, which finds its main support in the intrinsic difficulties of the narrative, it is scarcely possible to avoid the conclusion that the chapter is one of the latest additions to the Pentateuch (Wellhausen and many others)."
Wellhausen (Nachrichten of the Univ.
Wellhausen regards 1-6 and 7-14 as doublets, and differentiates two actions in the original account which are here confused.
Wellhausen's briefer work (3rd ed., 1898) is especially suggestive for textual criticism.
Valuable contributions to the exegesis of the book will be found in Wellhausen's Prolegomena (Eng.
Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums (= Skizzen and Vorarbeiten, iii.
Wellhausen's Der Text der Bucher Samuelis (1871) and S.
For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
Nor again is it possible to survey the more special developments of literary criticism which have later emerged, amongst which one of the most important has been the radical examination of the prophetic writings introduced and developed by (amongst others) Stade, Wellhausen, Duhm, Cheyne, Marti.'
Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten (1892); B.
From 1875 onwards Smith contributed to the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica a long series of important articles, which, together with the articles of Cheyne, Wellhausen and others, made that work an important factor in the change which was to pass over English thought in regard to the Bible; in 1878, by his pleadings in the trial for heresy brought against him on the ground of these articles, he turned a personal defeat in the immediate issue into a notable victory for the cause which led to his condemnation; and subsequently (in 1880), in two series of lectures, afterwards published 2 and widely read, he gave a brilliant, and, as it proved, to a rapidly increasing number a convincing exposition of the criticism of the literature, history and religion of Israel, which was already represented in Germany 2 The Old Testament in the Jewish Church (1881); The Prophets of Israel (1882).
by Wellhausen and in Holland by Kuenen.
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
10 (which places the fall of Samaria in Hezekiah's 6th year) is correct; but some scholars (as Wellhausen, Kamphausen, and Stade) suppose that the date in ver.
819 (especially the writings of Noldeke, Wellhausen, and Kamphausen there mentioned).
Special mention should be made of Wellhausen on the Synoptic Gospels (1903-1905), and Harnack, Beitrage z.
C. Hawkins, Horae Synopticae (Oxford, 1899); Prof. Julius Wellhausen, Eini-eitung in die drei ersten Evangelien (Berlin, 1905), Das Evangelium Marci (1903), Das Ev.
Wellhausen, Nowack, Marti and Harper, as well as others, have denied the genuineness of the concluding verses in Amos, viz.
Wellhausen remarks,' a better cement that the bread, because through the drinking of it the very blood of Jesus coursed through the veins of the disciples, and that is why more stress is laid on it than on the bread.
Wellhausen, Prolegomena, pp. 342 sqq.; G.
For the Messianic hopes of the Pharisees and the Psalter of Solomon see especially Wellhausen, Phariseer and Sadduccer (Greifswald, 1874).
Theologie (1897), pp. 81-85, 234-304; Baldensperger, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu; Wellhausen, Israel.
Wellhausen, Das Evangelium Marci, Das Evangelium Matthiii, Das Evangelium Lucas (1904), Einleitung in die drei ersten Evangelien (1905); A.
i.; Lightfoot on the Colossians; Lucius, Der Essenismus in seinem Verhaltniss zum Judenthum; Wellhausen, Israelitische and jiidische Geschichte; Ed.
Smith and Wellhausen), and Hauck's Realencyklopadie (F.
p. 205; Wellhausen, GOtting.
3; and see Wellhausen, Prolegomena, p. 94 (Eng.
269 seq., and Wellhausen, Prolegomena, V.
The public buildings include the Roman Catholic pro-cathedral, erected by the 3rd marquis of Bute, the county 1 Wellhausen and Nowack regard vv.
Kalisch wrote before the publication of Wellhausen's works, and anticipated him in some important points.
De Wette has been described by Julius Wellhausen as "the epoch-making opener of the historical criticism of the Pentateuch."
The researches of Wellhausen and Becker have made it clear that the difference which is marked in later Islam between a poll-tax (jizyah) and a land-tax (k/zarifj) did not at first exist: the papyri of the 1st century know only of the jizyah, which, however, is not a poll-tax but a land-tax (in the main).
This is recognized by Wellhausen, who says that our decalogue stands to that of Ex.
Were this the case the editor, to quote Wellhausen, "introduced the most serious internal contradiction found in the Old Testament."
The necessary work of literary analysis reached its most definite stage in the now famous hypothesis of Graf (1865-1866) and especially Wellhausen (1878), which was made more widely known to English readers, directly and indirectly through W.
Wellhausen, in his excellent book Das arabische Reich and sein Stiirz, has made it very probable that the decision of the umpires was that the choice of Ali as caliph should be cancelled, and that the task of nominating a successor to Othman should be referred to the council of notable men (shura), as representing the whole community.
Even some European scholars have drawn a false picture of his personality, as has been clearly shown by Wellhausen.
But, as Wellhausen has shown, it is not correct to consider the contest as a reaction of the maula's (Persian Moslems) against the Arabic supremacy.
Wellhausen, Die Kdmpfe der Araber mit den Rom.
If Wellhausen's restoration of I Kings viii.
Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs, &c. (1899); Kayser, Das vorexilische Buch der Urgeschichte Isr. (1874); Klostermann, Zeitschrift fiir Luth.
those by Derenbourg, Ewald, Stanley, Stade, Renan, Schiirer, Kent, Wellhausen, Guthe), see also Madden, Coins of the Jews (1881), H.
Wellhausen in his Reste des arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed., Berlin, 1897).
If, as Wellhausen and Duhm suppose, this refers to Deuteronomy (i.e.
The former is dated in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, though Wellhausen suspects that the date is a mistake, and that the real occasion was the death of Josiah.
Wellhausen, De Gent.
On this latter, and more probable, view (taken by Wellhausen, Nowack and Marti) there is no need to separate Obad.
7) upon Edom, which had resulted, by 312 B.C. at latest, in the occupation by Arabs of Petra, the chief city of the Edomites (Wellhausen, p. 214).
We may, therefore, with Wellhausen, Nowack and Marti, assign Obadiah 1-14 to the same period.
- Wellhausen,Die kleinenPropheten 3 (1898); Nowack, id.
The meaning of the name is uncertain; Wellhausen derives it from nan "Eve," or "serpent," in which case the Hivites were originally the snake clan; others explain it from the Arabic hayy, " family," as meaning "dwellers in (Bedouin) encampments."
He has no place in the oldest surviving narratives of the exodus (Wellhausen, Steuernagel); and only later sources add him to Caleb (Num.
Immense labour has been spent in the critical analysis of the contents, but it is only since the work of Graf (1866) and Wellhausen (1878) that a satisfactory literary hypothesis has been found which explained 1 It is interesting to find that the Spanish Rabbi Isaac"(of Toledo, A.D.
Wellhausen's sketch in his Proleg.
See also Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 208; S.
There are good reasons for regarding the book as a unity, although some scholars (Destinon, followed by Wellhausen) consider the concluding chapters (xiii.
4, Thenius and Wellhausen, followed by Robertson Smith and others, read "only his fish-part (dago) was left to him"; against this, see the comm.
10 -12 is an insertion (Wellhausen, Cornill, Kittel, &c.), even if xii.
Wellhausen's model Text-Biicher Sam.
Wellhausen, allowing for the circumstances that he was in a sense their forerunner, and was actually for a time Graf's teacher.
The necessity of postulating a Hebrew original was first shown by the present writer, and has since been maintained by Wellhausen (Skizzen u.
Langen, Hilgenfeld, Wieseler, Stahelin, Renan, Hausrath, Drummond, Dillmann, Rosenthal, Gunkel, have maintained on various grounds the priority of 4 Ezra; and Scharer, Bissell, Thomson, Deane, Kabisch, De Faye, Wellhausen, and Ryssel the priority of Baruch on grounds no less convincing.
- For the argument in § i, see Wellhausen, Prolegomena, pp. 121-151; W.
Myers, 1905), pp. 148-179; Wellhausen's 1 See K.
So far as concerns the critical problems which stand at the threshold of our task, it must suffice to say that the main conclusions reached by the school of Kuenen and Wellhausen as to the literary problems of the Old Testament are assumed throughout this sketch of the evolution of Hebrew religion.
4 Wellhausen's characterization of the Arabian hajj 5 applies with equal force to the Hebrew hagg (festival): " They formed the rendezvous of ancient life.
It was the conclusion to which Wellhausen's brilliant literary analysis, when not supplemented by the discoveries at Tell el-Amarna and Tell el-Hesi, appeared to many scholars (by no means all) inevitably to conduct us.
Wellhausen in the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenleindischen Gesellschaft, vol.
2 Wellhausen cites a closely parallel case from Sprenger's Leben Muhammad, vol.
All parts of the problem have been greatly forwarded by the recent publication of important works by Wellhausen and Harnack (see below).
139 sqq., Burney, Kings, 350 sq.; Driver; Kuchler, &c.; for the later, Whitehouse, Isaiah, 29 sq., in agreement with Schrader, Wellhausen, W.
From this chapter, some seventy years after de Wette's discovery, Wellhausen with equal acumen inferred that Leviticus was not known to Ezekiel, the priest, and therefore could not have been in existence in his day; for had Leviticus been the recognized Law-book of his nation Ezekiel could not have represented as a degradation the very position which that Law-book described as a special honour conferred on the Levites by Yahweh himself.
According to one view (Stade, Wellhausen, Guthe, &c.) only the Joseph tribes were in Egypt, and separate tribal movements (see JuDAH) have been incorporated in the growth of the tradition; the probability that the specific traditions of the Joseph tribes have been excised or subordinated finds support in the manner in which the Judaean P has abridged and confused the tribal lists of Ephraim and Manasseh.
2) is equally independent of the story of the Deluge and of Noah's family (see Wellhausen, Prolegomena, p. 316).
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