The Pamir extension of Afghan territory to the north-east reaches to a point a little short of 75° E., from whence it follows the waterdivide to the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, and is thenceforward defined by the water-parting of the Hindu Kush.
On the west, Badakshan is bounded by a line which crosses the Turkestan plains southwards from the junction of the Kunduz and Oxus rivers till it touches the eastern waterdivide of the Tashkurghan river (here called the Koh-i-Chungar), and then runs south-east, crossing the Sarkhab affluent of the Khanabad (Kunduz), till it strikes the Hindu Kush.
away from Lake Aral, though they do not cross the Aral-Irtysh waterdivide, so that this sea will not probably have been at that time connected with the Arctic, as some have supposed.
As they pass away southwards this gridiron formation strikes with a gentle curve westwards, the narrow enclosed valleys widening out towards the sources of the rivers, where ages of denudation have worn down the folds and filled up the hollows with fruitful soil, until at last they touch the central waterdivide, the key of the whole system, on the Quetta plateau.
On the north and north-west of Kashmir the great waterdivide which separates the Indus drainage .area from that of the Yarkand and other rivers of Chinese Turkestan has been explored by Sir F.
The Pamir extension of Afghan territory to the north-east reaches to a point a little short of 75Ã‚° E., from whence it follows the waterdivide to the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, and is thenceforward defined by the water-parting of the Hindu Kush.
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