Villes sentence example
- In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.
- He has published, besides the works already mentioned, Traite de mecanique rationnelle (1858); De l'analyse infinitesimale (1860, revised ed., 1881); Des pentes economiques en chemin de fer (1861); Emploi des eaux d'egout en agriculture (1869); Principes de l'assainissement des villes and Traite d'assainissement industriel (1870); Essai sur la philosophise des sciences (1896); La Question d'Egypte (1905); besides some remarkable "Pensees" contributed to the Contemporain under the pseudonym of "Alceste."
- In the group of the villes consulaires, comprising all important towns in the south, the executive was, as in Italy, in the hands of a body of consules, whose number in most cases rose to twelve.
- The constitutional history of the communes in northern France in a number of points widely differed from that of these villes consulaires.
- The most striking distinction, however, as against the villes consulaires was the elevation of the president of the body to the position of maire or mayeur (sometimes also called prevot, praepositus).Advertisement
- These two varieties, the communes and the villes consulaires together form the group of villes libres.
- As opposed to these stand the villes franches, also called villes prevotales after the chief officer, villes de bourgeoisie or villes soumises.
- They are called villes franches on account of their possessing a franchise, a charter limiting the services due by the citizens to their lord, but political status they had little or none.
- On the other hand, towns of the first category often come close to the villes libres.
- The judicial competence of the Parlement developed and became more clearly defined; the system of appeals came into existence, and appeals against the judgments of the baillis and seneschals were brought before it; cases concerning the royal towns, the bonnes villes, were also decided by it.Advertisement
- Giry himself published Les Etablissements de Rouen (1883-1885), a study, based on very minute researches, of the charter granted to the capital of Normandy by Henry II.; king of England, and of the diffusion of similar charters throughout the French dominions of the Plantagenets; a collection of Documents sur les relations de la royaute avec les villes de France de 1180 a 1314 (1885); and Etude sur les origines de la commune de Saint-Quentin (1887).
- Like other villes franches under the king, Paris was governed by a prevot (provost), but certain functions of self-government for the city were delegated to the company of the marchands de l'eau, mercatores aquae, also called mercatores ansati, that is, the gild of merchants whose business lay down the river Seine, in other words, a body naturally exclusive, not, however, to the citizens as such.