Vacuo sentence example

vacuo
  • It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
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  • Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.
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  • Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.
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  • A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.
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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.
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  • Others are deprived of a part of their more volatile constituents by spontaneous evaporation, or by distillation, in vacuo or otherwise, at the lowest possible temperature.
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  • It forms a golden yellow crystalline mass, which sublimes slowly in vacuo, and melts at 25.5° C. It blackens on exposure to moisture, and decomposes when exposed to light.
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  • Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
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  • It is there shown that every substance, transparent to light, has a definite refractive index, which is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuo to its velocity in the medium to which the refractive index refers.
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  • To being the wave-length in vacuo.
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  • It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
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  • It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
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  • That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
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  • Since Howard published his invention the vacuum pan has been greatly improved and altered in shape and power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concentrating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have turned their attention to the principle.
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  • In certain districts, notably in the Straits Settlements, syrup is prepared as described above for crystallization in a vacuum pan, but instead of being cooked in vacuo it is slowly boiled up in open double-bottom pans.
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  • The wholesale jam manufacturers of the present day use this sugar; they boil the jam in vacuo and secure a product that will last a long time without deteriorating, but it lacks the delicacy and distinctive flavour of fruit preserved by a careful housekeeper, who boils it in an open pan with cane sugar to a less density, though exposed for a short time to a greater heat.
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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.
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  • A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.
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  • To avoid unnecessary complications we shall assume this latter condition in all the following discussion, which is equivalent simply to assuming that all our electrical measurements are made in air or in vacuo.
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  • To determine the true weight in vacuo at 0°, account must be taken of the different buoyancies, or losses of true weight, due to the different volumes of the solids and weights.
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  • The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.
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  • The results given below, which are selected from a much larger series published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, were obtained by heating samples of the different coals in vacuo for several hours at the temperature of boiling water: - In one instance about i% of hydride of ethyl was found in the gas from a blower in a pit in the Rhondda district, which was collected in a tube and brought to the surface to be used in lighting the engine-room and pit-bank.
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  • Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, P. 543), C3H7NH 2 +HNO 2 =N 2 +2H 2 O+C 3 H 6; by the electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH 3 CHBr CH(CH 3) CO 2 H =CO 2 -1-HBr+CH 3 CH :CH CH 3; by distilling the barium salts of acids Cn,H 2, ,,- 2 0 2 with sodium methylate in vacuo (I.
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  • The weight of a cubic decimetre of water reaches 1000 grammes under a pressure of four atmospheres; but in vacuo, at all temperatures, the weight of water is less than a kilogram.
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  • Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
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  • It is a liquid which boils in vacuo at 150°, but at 192-195° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide and ammonia.
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  • When the reaction is complete the acid is neutralized with soda, and the phenyl methyl pyrazolone extracted with ether and distilled in vacuo.
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  • Lyman more recently has been able to obtain photographs as far down as 1030 A with the help of a concave grating placed in vacuo.
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  • His principal observations are given in his work, Experimenta nova, ut vocant, Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio (Amsterdam, 1672).
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  • Potassium aluminate, K 2 Al 2 0 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo.
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  • The above methods give a dilute aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, which may be concentrated somewhat by evaporation over sulphuric acid in vacuo.
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  • The alcohol is removed by distillation in vacuo, and by further concentration in vacuo a solution may be obtained which evolves 580 volumes of oxygen.
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  • The sulphate, Ce(SO 4) 2.4H 2 O, is formed when the basic sulphate is dissolved in sulphuric acid; or when the dioxide is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporated in vacuo over sulphuric acid.
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  • Its speculation can no longer be stigmatized as vaticination in vacuo, nor its results as illusory.
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  • It rapidly dissociates when heated in vacuo to 300° C. The existence of the oxide Rb 2 0 appears to be doubtful, the results of Erdmann and Kothner (loc. cit.) pointing to the formation of Rb0 2 by the direct union of the metal with dry oxygen.
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  • Rengade (Comptes rendus, 1907, 1 44, P. 920), by partially oxidizing the metal in a current of dry oxygen and removing excess of metal by distillation in vacuo, has obtained oxides of composition Rb202 (yellowish white), Rb203 (black) and Rb204 (yellow).
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  • The aqueous solution can be concentrated in vacuo over sulphuric acid until it contains 40% of chloric acid.
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  • Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."
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  • When heated to 180° C. in vacuo it yields the simple cyanide Se(CN) 2.
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  • It is decomposed by water evolving hydrogen, and when heated in vacuo at 50°-60° C. it gives lithium and ammonia.
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  • Hypobromous acid is obtained by shaking together bromine water and precipitated mercuric oxide, followed by distillation of the dilute solution in vacuo at low temperature (about 40°C.).
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  • Phosphorus tetroxide, P204, was obtained by Thorpe and Tutton by heating the product of the limited combustion of phosphorus in vacuo as a sublimate of transparent, highly lustrous, orthorhombic crystals.
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  • Phosphorous acid, P(OH) 3, discovered by Davy in 1812, may be ' obtained by dissolving its anhydride, P 4 0 61 in cold water; by immersing sticks of phosphorus in a solution of copper sulphate contained in a well-closed flask, filtering from the copper sulphide and precipitating the sulphuric acid simultaneously formed by baryta water, and concentrating the solution in vacuo; or by passing chlorine into melted phosphorus covered with water, the first formed phosphorus trichloride being decomposed by the water into phosphorous and hydrochloric acids.
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  • In this way an exact comparison of the weights in vacuo can be computed, but of course the simplest way of arriving at the result would be by the construction of a strong air-tight case which can be completely exhausted of air by an air-pump, and in which the weighing can then be effected in vacuo.
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  • The difficulty about weighing in vacuo is that it is found almost impossible to exhaust the case entirely, or even to maintain a constant degree of exhaustion, by reason of the leakage connected with the weighing operations, and in consequence weighing in vacuo is not much in favour.
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  • By evaporating in vacuo the solution obtained by dissolving iron in hydrochloric acid, there results bluish, monoclinic crystals of FeCl24H20, which deliquesce, turning greenish, on exposure to air, and effloresce in a desiccator.
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  • By adding ammonium chloride to the solution, evaporating in vacuo, and then volatilizing the ammonium chloride, anhydrous ferrous chloride is obtained.
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  • The difference between the positive and negative figures seems to depend on the presence of the air; for the difference tends to disappear when the experiment is conducted in vacuo.
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  • A bell rung in vacuo, with proper precautions to prevent the communication of motion, remains inaudible.
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  • It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
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  • It is a fundamental result in dynamics that, if a body be projected vertically upwards in vacuo, with a velocity of v centimetres per second, it will rise to a height of v 2 /2g centimetres, where g represents the numerical value of the acceleration produced by gravity in centimetre-second units.
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  • Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.
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  • Availing himself of the admirable generalized co-ordinate system of Lagrange, Maxwell showed how to reduce all electric and magnetic phenomena to stresses and motions of a material medium, and, as one preliminary, but excessively severe, test of the truth of his theory, he pointed out that (if the electromagnetic medium be that which is required for the explanation of the phenomena of light) the velocity of light in vacuo should xvii.
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  • It forms a golden yellow crystalline mass, which sublimes slowly in vacuo, and melts at 25.5° C. It blackens on exposure to moisture, and decomposes when exposed to light.
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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.
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  • To determine the true weight in vacuo at 0°, account must be taken of the different buoyancies, or losses of true weight, due to the different volumes of the solids and weights.
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  • It is a liquid which boils in vacuo at 150°, but at 192-195° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide and ammonia.
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  • Urea crystallizes in long needles or prisms which melt at 132° C. and sublime when heated in vacuo.
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  • It rapidly dissociates when heated in vacuo to 300° C. The existence of the oxide Rb 2 0 appears to be doubtful, the results of Erdmann and Kothner (loc. cit.) pointing to the formation of Rb0 2 by the direct union of the metal with dry oxygen.
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  • When heated to 180° C. in vacuo it yields the simple cyanide Se(CN) 2.
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  • It is decomposed by water evolving hydrogen, and when heated in vacuo at 50°-60° C. it gives lithium and ammonia.
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  • Hypobromous acid is obtained by shaking together bromine water and precipitated mercuric oxide, followed by distillation of the dilute solution in vacuo at low temperature (about 40°C.).
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