Uredineae sentence example

uredineae
  • White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.
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  • AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.
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  • Gymnosporangium sabinae, one of the rusts (Uredineae) passes one stage of its life-history on living pear leaves, forming large raised spots or patches which are at first yellow but soon become red and are visible on both faces; on the lower face of each patch is a group of cluster-cups or aecidia containing spores which escape when ripe.
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  • The resemblance of the spermatia and spermogonia to those of Uredineae should be pointed out, where also there is considerable evidence for their original sexual nature, though they appear in that group to be functionless in all cases.
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  • They are principally Polyporei, Agaricini, Pezizae; none are known among the Phycomycetes, Uredineae or Ustilagineae.
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  • Among those directly visible to the microscope are oil drops, often coloured (Uredineae) crystals of calcium oxalate (Phallus, Russula), proteid crystals (Mucor, Pilobolus, &c.) and resin (Polyporei).
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  • As with other plants, so in fungi the essential process of fertilization consists in the fusion of two nuclei, but owing to the absence of well-marked sexual organs from many fungi, a peculiar interest attaches to certain nuclear fusions in the vegetative cells or in young spores of many forms. Thus in Ustilagineae the chlamydospores, and in Uredineae the teleutospores, each contain two nuclei when young, which fuse as the spores mature.
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  • In many cases the slimy masses of spermatia (Uredineae), conidia (Claviceps), basidiospores (Phallus, Coprinus), &c., emit more or less powerful odours, which attract flies or other insects, and it has been shown that bees carry the flagrant oidia of Sclerotinia to the stigma of Vaccinium and infect it, and that flies carry away the foetid spores of Phallus, just as pollen is dispersed by such insects.
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  • Uredineae.
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  • This is the only case of heteroecism known in the vegetable kingdom outside the Uredineae.
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  • The study of the nuclear behaviour of the cells of the Uredineae has thrown great light on the question of sexuality.
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  • This group like the rest of the Basidiales exhibits an association of nuclei at some point in its life-history, but unlike the case of the Basidiomycetes the point of association in the Uredineae is very well defined in all those forms which st .:_ possess aecidiospores.
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  • This group is characterized by its greatly reduced life-history as compared with that of the eu forms among the Uredineae.
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  • Formerly, before the relationship of promycelium and basidium were understood, the Uredineae were considered as quite independent of the Basidiomycetes.
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  • Later, however, these Uredineae were placed as a mere subdivision of the Basidiomycetes.
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  • Although the Uredineae clearly lead on to the Basidiomycetes, yet owing to their retaining in many cases definite traces of sexual organs they are clearly a more primitive group. Their marked parasitic habit also separates them off, so that they are best included with the Basidiomycetes in a larger cohort which may be called Basidiales.
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  • It must be clearly borne in mind that though the Basidiomycetes show no traces of differ entiated sexual organs yet, like the micro and lepto forms of the Uredineae, they still show (in the association of nuclei and later fusion of From Annals of Botany, by permission of the Clarendon Press.
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  • The first named contains a small number of forms with the basidium divided like the promycelium of the Uredineae.
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  • Such obligate parasites may be epiphytic (Erysipheae), the mycelium remaining on the outside and at most merely sending haustoria into the epidermal cells, or endophytic (Uredineae, Ustilagineae, &c.), when the mycelium is entirely inside the organs of the host.
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  • Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).
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  • It has been shown especially in the Uredineae and Erysiphaceae that many forms which can hardly be distinguished morphologically, or which cannot be differentiated at all by structural characters, are not reall y homogeneous but consist of a number of forms which are se se s g sharply distinguishable by their infecting power.
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  • Ustilagineae: Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (London, 1889); Massee, British Fungi (Phycomycetes and Ustilagineae) (London, 1891); Brefeld, Unters.
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  • Uredineae: Eriksson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); Eriksson, Botan.
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  • 25 (1896); "On the Vegetative Life of some Uredineae," Ann.
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  • (1905); Klebahn, Die wirtwechselnden Rostpilze (Berlin, 1904); Sapin-Trouffy, "Recherches histologiques sur la famine des Uredinees," Le Botaniste (1896-1897); Blackman, "On the Fertilization, Alternation of Generations and General Cytology of the Uredineae," Ann.
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  • 18 (1904); Blackman and Fraser, "Further Studies on the Sexuality of Uredineae," Ann.
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  • xxi.; Blackman, On the Fertilization, Alternation of Generations, and General Cytology of the Uredineae, Ann.
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  • A few examples are appended: Some of the Uredineae also exhibit the peculiarity of the development of biologic forms within a single morphological species, sometimes termed specialization of parasitism; this will be dealt with later under the section Physiology.
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  • idium), a reduced fertilization which denotes their derivation, through the Uredineae, from more typically sexual forms. No one has yet t.-ade out in any form the exact way in which the association of nuclei tr -.-es place in the group. The mycelium is always found to contain conjugate nuclei before the formation of basidia, but the point at which the conjugate condition arises seems very variable.
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