Early in 1306 he modified or explained away those features of the bulls Clericis Laicos and Unam sanctam which were particularly offensive to the king.
Among the theories prevalent in the middle ages was one that mankind formed a unity, with the pope and the emperor at the head of it: the universal Church and the universal emperor ruled the world (Rehm, Geschichte der Rechtswissenschaft, p. 198.) Even to Leibnitz, writing in the 17th century, it seemed that "totam Christianitatem unam velut Rempublicam componere, in qua Caesari auctoritas aliqua competit" (Opera, 4.330).
the papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
(1294-1303), who in the bull Unam Sanctam (130z) gave the papal claims to universal dominion their classical form, quarrelled with Philip IV.
After the arrest, by Philip's orders, of Bernard Saisset (q.v.), bishop of Pamiers, in that year, the quarrel flamed up again; other causes of difference existed, and in 1302 the pope issued the bull Unam sanctam, one of the most extravagant of all statements of papal claims. To ensure the support of his people the king had called an assembly of the three estates of his kingdom at Paris in April 1302; then in the following year Guillaume de Nogaret seized the person of the pope at Anagni, an event immortalized by Dante.
The hostilities were later renewed; in 1302 Boniface himself drafted and published the indubitably genuine bull Unam sanctam, one of the strongest official statements of the papal prerogative ever made.
Special literature on Unam Sanctam: C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (2nd ed., Tubingen, 1901), 148 f.; Kirchenlexikon, xii.
Its resolutions comprised the rejection of the pragmatic sanction, the proclamation of the pope's superiority over the council, and the renewal of the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
called together the fifth Lateran general council, which expressly recognized the subjection of the councils to the pope (Leo X.'s bull Pastor Aeternum, of the 19th of December 1516), and also declared the constitution Unam Sanctam (see above) valid in law.
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