They find Scripture warrant for this belief in Matt.
There are also special elucidations of some difficult Scripture texts.
Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture (1899), especially ch.
In support of their views they appealed to scripture and to the Western Fathers, who had used the term "adoption" as synonymous with "assumption" in the orthodox sense; and especially to Christ's fraternal relation to Christians - the brother of God's adopted sons.
The canon of Scripture was decided in accordance with the touchstone of the Pentateuch.
Nor is the first named ' theory less in harmony with Scripture teaching than the third.
students of Scripture, in those times were simply anxious for the authority of the Scriptures, not for the ascertainment of their precise historical origin.
That the substance of the Physiologus was borrowed from commentaries on Scripture 4 is confirmed by many of the sections opening with a text, followed up by some such formula as "but the Physiologus says."
It consists of reading of Holy Scripture, psalmody, non-liturgical prayer and preaching.
Reason and Scripture seemed to him the only grounds on which a true doctrine of the Lord's supper could be rested.
Mysterious doctrines are ascribed by Protestants to scripture; so half of revelation is regarded as matter for blind assent, if another half is luminous in experience.
From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) fifty-ninth year, I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scripture, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation."
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed, and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the decrees of general councils.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
Christian teachers, especially those who had a leaning towards Gnostic speculations, took an interest in natural history, partly because of certain passages of Scripture that they wanted to explain, and partly on account of the divine revelation in the book of nature, of which also it was man's sacred duty to take proper advantage.
The prefaces and notes to both these expressed the view that Holy Scripture is the only rule of doctrine, and that justification is by faith alone.
i is (like those of the Psalms) the work of one or more of the Sopherim (or students and editors of Scripture) in post-exilic times, apparently the same writer (or company of writers) who prefixed the headings of Hosea and Micah, and perhaps of some of the other books.
Though at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided into three portions, - a preface, the history proper, and an epistle, - the last, which is largely made up of passages and texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least important, though by far the longest of the three.
They appealed not to the school divines, but to Scripture and primitive antiquity.
This distinction was already current in the catechetical school of Alexandria, but Origen gave it its boldest expression, and justified it on the ground of the incapacity of the Christian masses to grasp the deeper sense of Scripture, or unravel the difficulties of exegesis.
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
He distinguishes a threefold sense of scripture, a grammaticohistorical, a moral and a pneumatic - the last being the proper and highest sense.
Its exclusion from the Jewish Canon of Scripture resulted naturally from its Alexandrian thought and from the fact that it was written in Greek.
In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.
- At the last General Synod (1909) they repeated their old fundamental principle that "the Holy Scriptures are our only rule of faith and practice"; but at the same time they declared that their interpretation of Scripture agreed substantially with the Nicene Creed, the Westminster and Augsburg Confessions, and the Thirty-nine Articles.
He connects the Christian ministry, not with the worship of the Temple, in which were priests and sacrificial ritual, but with that of the synagogue, which was a local institution providing spiritual edification by the reading and exposition of Scripture.'
Such were the letters on the study of Holy Scripture (18th November 1893), and on the reunion of Christendom (20th June 1894).
For the text of scripture he uses both the Latin versions, the Itala and the Vulgate, often comparing them together.
Revelation is not Scripture alone, for Scripture taken by itself does not correspond exactly with his description; nor is it church tradition alone, for church tradition must so far rest on Scripture.
The English reformers realized this fact; and notwithstanding their insistence on the unique authority of the canon of Scripture, their appeal to the fathers as representatives of the teaching of the undivided Church was as wholehearted as that of the Tridentine divines.
It was a short commentary on all the books of Scripture, including some of the apocryphal works, such as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Revelation of Peter.
This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos.
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
At morning worship the service consists of a litany, scripture lessons, sermon, singing, extempore prayer.
Aquinas.) Duns Scotus strongly upheld the authority of the church, making it the ultimate authority on which that of Scripture depends.
He particularly congratulated himself on having discovered the " philosophical argument " against transubstantiation, " that the text of Scripture which seems to inculcate the real presence is attested only by a single sense - our sight, while the real presence itself is disproved by three of our senses - the sight, the touch, and the taste."
This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.
His Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scripture were published by the Parker Society in 1848.
They are amongst the earliest examples of the "catenic" (catena, chain) form of commentary, consisting of a series of extracts from the fathers, arranged, with independent additions, to elucidate the portions of Scripture concerned.
JUAN EUSEBIO NIEREMBERG (1595-1658), Spanish Jesuit and mystic, was born at Madrid in, 1595, joined the Society of Jesus in 1614, and subsequently became lecturer on Scripture at the Jesuit seminary in Madrid, where he died on the 7th of April 1658.
understand theology must familiarize himself with Scripture, the teachings of the fathers, and the decisions of councils, in such a way as to be able to make part of himself, as it were, those channels along which this divine knowledge flowed.
Cranmer held that the consecration of a bishop was an unnecessary rite, and not required by Scripture; that election and appointment to office were sufficient.
The verbal inter- Geography pretation of Scripture led Lactantius (c. A.D.
with the other books, and with no marks of distinction, they were practically employed by the Greek Fathers in the same way as the other books; hence Origen, Clement and others often cite them as " scripture," " divine scripture," " inspired," and the like.
For Erigena, therefore, the speculative reason is the supreme arbiter; and in accordance with its results the utterances of Scripture and of the church have not infrequently to be subjected to an allegorical or mystical interpretation.
He considered the incarnation of Christ as the necessary manifestation to man of an eternal sonship in the divine nature, apart from which those filial qualities which God demands from man could have no sanction; by faith as used in Scripture he understood to be meant a certain moral or spiritual activity or energy which virtually implied salvation, because it implied the existence of a principle of spiritual life possessed of an immortal power.
Notwithstanding this adequate knowledge of Scripture, the modern theologian is disappointed to find very little of what he deems characteristically Christian.
Revelation is a divine source of knowledge, of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels; and he who would rightly v.
The material is drawn from Scripture, but in such a way that the propositions of the regula fidei are respected.
The pope appointed Faber to teach Holy Scripture, and Laynez scholastic theology, in the university of the Sapienza.
The chief of them, written against Calvinism, are Five Checks to Antinomianism, Scripture Scales to weigh the Gold of Gospel Truth, and the Portrait of St Paul.
I had read of the potter's clay and wheel in Scripture, but it had never occurred to me that the pots we use were not such as had come down unbroken from those days, or grown on trees like gourds somewhere, and I was pleased to hear that so fictile an art was ever practiced in my neighborhood.
Hooker expressly denies the power of synods to excommunicate: "that there should be Synods, which have potestatem juridicam is nowhere proved in Scripture because it is not a truth" (Survey, P t.
That the "talk" on that occasion partook of the nature of the "exposition" (m, t7) of Scripture, which, undertaken by a priest, elder or other competent person, had become a regular part of the service of the Jewish synagogue, 1 may also with much probability be assumed.
Whereunto are annexed certaine Oracles of Sibyila, agreeing with the Revelation and other places of Scripture.
Four of them are attributed to the archbishop himself - those on Salvation, Faith, Good Works and the Reading of Scripture.
The second stage was for the sub-deacon who read the epistle (facing the altar); and the third for the subordinate clergy who read other parts of scripture.
The scribes through the synagogues preserved the national spirit and directed it towards the religious life which was prescribed by Scripture.
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
In addition to the Old Testament the Therapeutae had books by the founders of their sect on the allegorical method of interpreting Scripture.
They obtained in the synagogue from time immemorial, and were used by the Christian fathers in the interpretation of Scripture.
Reason in its own strength and with its own instruments evolves a system of the universe which coincides, according to Erigena, with the teaching of Scripture.
- Here we may first mention George, Bishop of the Arabs (f724), who wrote commentaries on Scripture, and tracts and homilies on church sacraments, and finished the Hexaemeron of Jacob of Edessa.
The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Amon-Ra.
And the many fascinating character-sketches, which he has added to the portrait gallery of Scripture, are drawn clearly and without signs of effort.
EPISTLE TO PHILEMON, a scripture of the New Testament.
His common sense appears in his rejection of Hutchinson's attempt to prove that the Bible supplies a complete system of physical science, and his shrewdness in his Notes on Scripture Texts (1747).
- The Principles of Church Polity (1882); The Doctrine of Sacred Scripture (1884); 4What is the Bible?
Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote it as Scripture, though in Africa it was not held in such high consideration, as Tertullian speaks slightingly of it.
The Nestorian canon of Scripture seems never to have been fully determined, nor is the sacramental system rigidly defined.
The term Eres (cedar) of Scripture does not apply strictly to one kind of plant, but was used indefinitely in ancient times, as is the word cedar at present.
He regarded slavery as sanctioned by Holy Scripture, but the slaves ought to be educated and gradually emancipated.
I have chosen thee to unfold the spiritual sense of the Holy Scripture.
Another distinctive feature is that Jehovah did not go back to heaven without leaving behind him a visible representative of Himself in the word of the Scripture.
HERODIANS (`HpwStavoi), a sect or party mentioned in Scripture as having on two occasions - once in Galilee, and again in Jerusalem - manifested an unfriendly disposition towards Jesus (Mark iii.
As his quotations from Scripture appear to be made from the Peshitta, he probably wrote the homilies before he embarked upon the Philoxenian version.2 Philoxenus wrote also many controversial 'works and some liturgical pieces.
c. i is regarded by lawyers as limiting for the first time the description of heresy to tenets declared heretical either by the canonical Scripture or by the first four general councils, or such as should thereafter be so declared by parliament with the assent of Convocation.
Holding a doctrine of " conditional immortality," they believe that they alone have the true exegesis of Scripture, and that the " faith of Christendom" is" compounded of the fables predicted by Paul."
By this time the canon of New Testament Scripture was fairly settled, and with Origen (d.
The Antiochene school had set a worthy example of careful exegesis of scripture.
C. Dargan, "show the native oratorical instinct highly trained by study and practice, a careful and sensible (not greatly allegorical) interpretation of Scripture, a deep concern for the spiritual welfare of his charge, and a thorough consecration to his work.
Towards the end of the period we note the beginnings of the triple division of medieval preaching into cloistral, parochial and missionary or popular preaching, a division based at first on audiences rather than on subject-matter, the general character of which - legends and popular stories rather than exposition of Scripture - was much the same everywhere.
The Reformers gave the sermon a higher place in the ordinary service than it had previously held, and they laid special stress upon the interpretation and application of Scripture.
- " and they read in the book, in the law of God, this is the Scripture, wntrz (R.V.
Elsewhere, 2 we only find references to certain passages of Scripture, viz., the stories of Reuben and Tamar (Gen.
the Law and the Prophets, and that it was less rigidly observed in regard to the other portions of Scripture: a written translation of the lafter would be of special value for the purpose of private study.
On the other hand, pseudo-Jonathan shows a tendency to condense those additions which it has in common with the Fragmentary Targum: in particular he omits all quotations from Scripture.
That this latter source is the Targum Jerushalmi is proved, in the majority of cases, by a comparison with the Fragmentary Targum; (3) quotations from Scripture preserved in the Fragmentary Targum point to a completer version than our present Fragmentary Targum.
Now again he maintained with great warmth of conviction that his views were in close accordance with Scripture and the Anglican standards, but the council, without specifying any distinct "heresy" and declining to submit the case to the judgment of competent theologians, ruled otherwise, and he was deprived of his professorships.
While it is true that the Church has never condemned individuals, and that the warnings refer only to those who have received the faith, and do not touch the question of the unbaptized, there is a growing feeling that they go beyond the teaching of Holy Scripture on the responsibility of intellect in matters of faith.'
In 1675 Robert Barclay published an " Apology for the Society of Friends," in which he declared what they held concerning revelation, scripture, the fall, redemption, the inward light, freedom of conscience.
I deny thee," and he made a resolve henceforth to devote his scholarship to the Holy Scripture.
Great numbers of monks, each in solitary cell, spent lonely lives, scorched by the sun, ill-clad and scantily fed, pondering on portions of Scripture or copying MSS.
Accompanied by these ladies Jerome made the tour of Palestine, carefully noting with a scholar's keenness the various places mentioned in Holy Scripture.
Ernesti wished to subject the Scripture to the same laws of exposition as are applied to other ancient books; Crusius held firmly to orthodox ecclesiastical tradition.
for those who exalted the idea of the Catholic Church and the sacramental system at the expense both of the Establishment and of the exclusive authority of Scripture.
Among other places he went to Heidelberg and Halle, and had his attention directed at Heidelberg to the canons of scripture criticism published by Gerhard von Ma.stricht, and at Halle to C. Vitringa's Anacrisis ad Apocalypsin.
The principles of interpretation on which he proceeded were, to import nothing into Scripture, but to draw out of it everything that it really contained, in conformity with grammaticohistorical rules; not to be hampered by dogmatical considerations; and not to be influenced by the symbolical books.
The more important are: Ordo Temporum, a treatise on the chronology of Scripture, in which he enters upon speculations regarding the end of the world, and an Exposition of the Apocalypse which enjoyed for a time great popularity in Germany, and was translated into several languages.
The clergy were bidden to exhort their hearers to the " works of charity, mercy and faith, specially prescribed and commanded in Scripture, and not to repose their trust or affiance in any other works devised by men's phantasies beside Scripture; as in wandering to pilgrimages, offering of money, candles or tapers to images or relics, or kissing or licking the same, saying over a number of beads, not understood or minded on, or in such-like superstition."
By the reformed Churches, including the Church of England, the festival is not observed, having been rejected at the Reformation as being neither primitive nor founded upon any "certain warrant of Holy Scripture."
The principal theological writings of Basil are his De Spiritu Sancto, a lucid and edifying appeal to Scripture and early Christian tradition, and his three books against Eunomius, the chief exponent of Anomoian Arianism.
Adoration is permitted, and the use of the terms "sacrifice" and "altar" maintained as being consonant with scripture and antiquity.
$ Loci communes (1610-1622), on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, ix.
Dogmas or articles of faith (taken as synonymous) depend upon revelation in Scripture or tradition, as confirmed by the church whether acting in general councils or through the pope (in some undefined way; Holden) - in general councils or by universal consent (Chrismann; of bishops ?
The same council defines not indeed dogma but faith - inseparable from dogma - as4 (1) revealed, (a) in Scripture or (b) in unwritten tradition, and (2) taught by the church, (a) in formulated decrees, or (b) in her ordinary magisterium.
HOMILY, a simple religious address, less elaborate than a sermon, and confining itself to the practical exposition of some ethical topic or some passage of Scripture.
But as no popular discourse delivered from the pulpit could ever be exclusively expository and as on the other hand every sermon professing to be based on Scripture required to be more or less "exegetical" and "textual," it would obviously be sometimes very hard to draw the line of distinction between OycXla and Aoyos.
In his definite recognition of the theological place of Scripture he showed, says Dr T.
All these set forth in their symbolical books the supreme place of Scripture, accepting the position which Zwingli laid down in 1536 in The First Helvetic Confession, namely, that "Canonic Scripture, the Word of God, given by the Holy Spirit and set forth to the world by the Prophets and Apostles, the most perfect and ancient of all philosophies, alone contains perfectly all piety and the whole rule of life."
He had made a copy of St Paul's epistles and committed them to memory, and from this arsenal of Scripture he attacked the unrighteousness of the state no less than the superstition of the Church.
It was decided that images are forbidden by Scripture and that the mass is not a sacrifice.
As opposed to Luther, Zwingli insisted more firmly on the supreme authority of Scripture, and broke more thoroughly and radically with the medieval Church.
To the ordinary men it seemed to be a reforming agency, insisting on a high moral standard, and upholding the words of Scripture against the traditions of an overgrown and worldly church.
Some of the older writers appealed to Scripture as supporting their systems, especially the texts Exod.
As, however, the prince might approve a false type of Church, in spite of what they 2 both assumed to be the clear teaching of Scripture, and should so far be resisted, Browne and Barrow found themselves practically in the same attitude towards the prince's religious coercion.
In Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific acts.
(r) The soldiers cast lots upon His garments and seamless tunic; His mother with two faithful women and the beloved disciple at the cross's foot; His commendation of His mother and the disciple to each other; His last two sayings in deliberate accomplishment of scripture " I thirst," " It is accomplished."
5 Crawford, Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement, pp. 327 ff.
This found expression in the formulation of an apostolic scripture canon, our New Testament, and of an apostolic rule of faith, of which the old Roman symbol, the original of our present Apostles' Creed, is one of the earliest examples.
Becoming a Congregationalist, he accepted in 1842 the chair of biblical criticism, literature and oriental languages at the Lancashire Independent College at Manchester; but he was obliged to resign in 1857, being brought into collision with the college authorities by the publication of an introduction to the Old Testament entitled The Text of the Old Testament, and the Interpretation of the Bible, written for a new edition of Horne's Introduction to the Sacred Scripture.
In 1862 he removed to London to become scripture examiner in London University, and he spent the rest of his life in literary work.
on matters of faith arose, "a lawful and free council, determining according to Scripture, is the best judge on earth."
They were, he said, opposed to Holy Scripture, to the traditions of the Church for the first loco years, to historical evidence, to the decrees of the general councils, and to the existing relations of the Roman Catholic Church to the state in every country in the world.
An English translation of the Theologia was published in 1702 by William Jones (A Complete System or Body of Divinity, both Speculative and Practical, founded on Scripture and Reason, London, 1702);1702); and a translation of the Historia Inquisitionis, by Samuel Chandler, with "a large introduction concerning the rise and progress of persecution and the real and pretended causes of it" prefixed, appeared in 1731.
The latter's system of interpretation was based upon an extremely literal treatment of the text, according to which the smallest words or particles, and sometimes even the letters of scripture, were invested with divine authority.
That the interval which elapsed before the Prophets and the Hagiographa were also translated was no great one is shown by the prologue to Sirach which speaks of " the Law, the Prophets and the rest of the books," as already current in a translation by 132 B.C. The date at which the various books were combined into a single work is not known, but the existence of the Septuagint as a whole may be assumed for the 1st century A.D., at which period the Greek version was universally accepted by the Jews of the Dispersion as Scripture, and from them passed on to the Christian Church.
In brief, then, the criticism of the Old Testament seeks to discover what the words written actually meant to the writers, what the events in Hebrew history actually were, what the religion actually was; and hence its aim differs from the dogmatic or homiletic treatments of the Old Testament, which have sought to discover in Scripture a given body of dogma or incentives to a particular type of life or the like.
It is true that even by the most thorough-going allegorists the literal sense of Scripture was not openly and entirely disregarded; but the very fact that the study of Hebrew was never more than exceptional, and so early ceased to be cultivated at all, is eloquent of indifference to the original literal sense, and the very principle of the many meanings inherent in the sacred writings was hostile to sound interpretation; greater importance was attached to the " deeper " or " hidden " senses, i.e.
traditional treatment of Scripture was undermined; the way was opened for a more real and historical method.
An increasing stress was laid on the literal sense of Scripture.
The leading Reformers - Luther, Zwingli, Melancthon - frequently expressed themselves against the prevailing view of the manifold sense of Scripture, and in particular questioned the legitimacy of allegorical interpretation - except for purposes of popular and practical exposition.
The valuable editions of the Old Testament by Baer and Delitzsch, and by Ginsburg, contain critical texts of the Jewish interpretation of Scripture, and therefore necessarily uncritical texts of the Hebrew Old Testament itself: it lies entirely outside their scope to give or even to consider the evidence which exists for correcting the obvious errors in the text of the Old Testament as received and perpetuated by the Jewish interpreters.
Down to the - Reformation conditions were unfavourable to such criticism; the prevailing dogmatic use of Scripture gave no occasion for inquiry into the human origins or into the real purport and character of the several books.
the interpretation and use of Scripture, they were not immediately interested in literary and historical criticism, nor con cerned to challenge the whole body of traditional lore The Reformers.
He concludes: " But considering the inscriptions, or titles of their books, it is manifest enough that the whole Scripture of the Old Testament was set forth in the form we have it after the return of the Jews from their captivity in Babylon and before the time of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus."
Pusey indeed studied under Eichhorn, and in his Historical Enquiry into the probable causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in German Theology (1828-1830) speaks sympathetically of the attitude of the Reformers on the question of Scripture and in condemnation of the later Protestant scholastic doctrine; but even in this book he shows no receptivity for any of the actual critical conclusions of Eichhorn and his successors, and subsequently threw the weight of his learning against critical conclusions - notably in his Commentary on Daniel (1864).
Briggs, General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture (1889); G.
3 It was believed that the Written Word had an infinite fulness; according to the Midr. Bemidbar Rabbah every word of the Law had seventy different aspects, and Philo of Alexandria held that there are no superfluous words in Scripture.
Briggs Study of Holy Scripture (Edinburgh, 1899), ch.
On their arrival at Rome the three Jesuits were favourably received by Paul III., who at once appointed Faber to the chair of scripture and Laynez to that of scholastic theology in the university of the Sapienza.
Among these we must mention the JudaeoChristian Gnostic Cerinthus, also the Gnostic Ebionites, of whom Epiphanius (Haer.) gives us an account, and whose writings are to be found in a recension in the collected works of the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions and Homilies; to the same class belong the Elkesaites with their mystical scripture, the Elxai, extracts of which are given by Hippolytus in the Philos.
The second period of Oecolampadius's life opens with his return to Basel in November 1522, as vicar of St Martin's and (in 1523) reader of the Holy Scripture at the university.
epistles and gospels used in divine service, and other means of familiarizing the people with Holy Scripture.
The Wycliffite authorship of the Commentaries on the Gospels, on which the learned editors base their argument, is, however, unsupported by any evidence beyond the fact that the writer of the Prologue to Matthew urges in strong language " the propriety of translating Scripture for the use of the laity."
In a convocation held at Oxford under Archbishop Arundel in 1408 it was enacted " that no man hereafter by his own authority translate any text of the Scripture into English or any other tongue, by way of a book, booklet, or tract; and that no man read any such book, booklet, or tract, now lately composed in the time of John Wycliffe or since, or hereafter to be set forth in part or in whole, publicly or privately, upon pain of greater excommunication, until the said translation be approved by the ordinary of the place, or, if the case so require, by the council provincial.
His execution took place on the 6th of October 1536, and about the same time a small folio reprint of his revised edition of 1534 was brought out in England, the first volume of Scripture printed in this country, probably by T.
the New Testament), or soche lyke thige i the scripture beforetyme."
This first of all printed English Bibles is a small folio in German black letter, bearing the title: " Biblia, The Bible; that is, the Holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament, faithfully and truly translated out of Douche (German) and Latyn into Englishe, M.D.XXXV."
Indeed, he disavows any such claim by stating expressly, in his dedication to the king, " I have with a cleare conscience purely & faythfully translated this out of fyue sundry interpreters, hauyng onely the manyfest trueth of the scripture before myne eyes," and in the Prologue he refers to his indebtedness to " The Douche (German) interpreters: whom (because of theyr synguler gyftes and speciall diligence in The Bible) I haue ben the more glad to folowe for the most parte, accordynge as I was requyred."
It will have been observed that the translations of Holy Scripture which had been printed during these years (1525-1539) were all made by private men and printed without any public authority.
This commission reported against the expediency of setting forth a vernacular translation until there was a more settled state of religious opinion, but states that the king " intended to provide that the Holy Scripture shall be, by great, learned and Catholic persons, translated into the English tongue if it shall then seem to His Grace convenient to be " (ib.
of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Libr.
(7) Such quotations of places to be marginally set down as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another.
Eadie, The English Bible: an External and Critical History of the various English Translations of Scripture (2 vols., 1876: the most complete account); A.
His publications include: Compleat View of Episcopacy, as Exhibited in the Fathers of the Christian Church, until the close of the Second Century (1771); Salvation of All Men, Illustrated and Vindicated as a Scripture Doctrine (1782); The Mystery Hid from Ages and Generations made manifest by the Gospel-Revelation (1783); and Five Dissertations on the Fall and its Consequences (1785).
Each class based its position on Scripture, but the latter (which prevailed) had the advantage of being able easily to combine with cosmological and theological propositions current in the religious philosophy of the time.
The view that identifies confirmation rather than baptism with the Pentecostal outpouring of the Spirit on the Church has had to contend against a longestablished tradition, but appeals to Scripture (Acts viii.
At Rome in mature manhood Tertullian became a Christian, under what circumstances we do not know, and forthwith he bent himself with all his energy to the study of Scripture and of Christian literature.
His theological work was always distinguished by the place which he assigned to Divine Revelation in Holy Scripture and in the teaching of history.
He endeavoured to prove that early Greek philosophers had borrowed largely from certain parts of Scripture, and quoted from Linus, Orpheus, Musaeus and others, passages which strongly resemble the Mosaic writings.
In brief they were as follows: that he had taught that reason and the Church are each a " fountain of divine authority which apart from Holy Scripture may and does savingly enlighten men "; that " errors may have existed in the original text of the Holy Scripture "; that " many of the Old Testament predictions have been reversed by history " and that " the great body of Messianic prediction has not and cannot be fulfilled "; that " Moses is not the author of the Pentateuch," and that " Isaiah is not the author of half of the book which bears his name "; that " the processes of redemption extend to the world to come " - he had considered it a fault of Protestant theology that it limits redemption to this world - and that" sanctification is not complete at death."
A Theological Question for the Times (1889); The Authority of the Holy Scripture (1891); The Bible, the Church and the Reason (1892); The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch (1893); The Messiah of the Gospels (1894) The Messiah of the Apostles (1894); New Light on the Life of Jesus (1904); The Ethical Teaching of Jesus (1904); A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms (2 vols., 1906-1907), in which he was assisted by his daughter; and The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1909).
Entering the church he found the preacher engaged in expounding the words, "We have also a more sure word of prophecy," from which the ordinary Protestant doctrine of the supreme authority of Scripture was being enforced in a manner which appeared to Fox so defective or erroneous as to call for his immediate and most energetic protest.
Lifting up his voice against the preacher's doctine, he declared that it is not by the Scripture alone, but by the divine light by which the Scriptures were given, that doctrines ought to be judged.
In spite of significant omissions (the sole authority of scripture; rejection of transubstantiation), the Confession contains nothing contradictory to Luther's position, and in its emphasis on justification by faith alone enunciates a cardinal concept of the Evangelical churches.
Wolmar, who had taught Greek to Calvin, grounded Beza in Scripture from a Protestant standpoint; after his return to Germany (1534) Beza studied law at Orleans (May 1535 to August 1539), beginning practice in Paris (1539) as law licentiate.
As head of the Protestant party the young elector Maurice of Saxony negotiated with Melanchthon and others, and at Leipzig, on the 22nd of December 1548, secured their acceptance of the Interim as regards adiaphora (things indifferent), points neither enjoined nor forbidden in Scripture.
This is known as the Commination service, its distinctive element being the solemn reading of "the general sentences of God's cursing against sinners, gathered out of the seven and twentieth chapter of Deuteronomy, and other places of Scripture."
In the middle ages some knowledge of Hebrew was preserved in the Church by converted Jews and even by non-Jewish scholars, of whom the most notable were the Dominican controversialist Raymundus Martini (in his Pugio fidei) and the Franciscan Nicolaus of Lyra, on whom Luther drew largely in his interpretation of Scripture.
Nitzsch argues against the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, regards the teaching of Scripture about eternal damnation as hypothetical, and thinks it possible that Paul reached the hope of universal restoration.
The celebration of the Feast of the Ascension was also retained in the Lutheran churches as warranted by Holy Scripture.
Tertullian about half a century later makes frequent reference to the reading of Holy Scripture in public worship (Apol.
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
The document is for the most part an enumeration of such apocryphal works as by their titles might be supposed to be part of Holy Scripture (the "Acts" of Philip, Thomas and Peter, and the Gospels of Thaddaeus, Matthias, Peter, James the Less and others).
It is so Christian in tone, he quaintly remarks elsewhere, that an inquisitor might have used it quite as well as a heretic. In it the Perfect addresses the postulant, as in the corresponding Armenian rite, by the name of Peter; and explains to him from Scripture the indwelling of the spirit in the Perfect, and his adoption as a son by God.
They denied Church, Scripture, the current ministry and services, calling on men to hearken to Christ within them.
And the glory of His coming thou canst learn, 0 king, from that which is called among them the evangelic scripture, if thou wilt read it.
These histories are chiefly about Scripture characters, especially those of the Old Testament.
From one point of view the haggada, amplifying and developing the contents of Hebrew scripture in response to a popular religious need, may be termed a rabbinical commentary on the Old Testament, containing traditional stories and legends, sometimes amusing, sometimes trival, and often beautiful.
The work of Arnobius appears to have been written when he was a recent convert, for he does not possess a very extensive knowledge of Scripture.
He tried to calm the unrest of his conscience by correspondence with the leaders of the evangelical revival on the continent, and sought for omens and supernatural guidance in texts and passages of scripture.
And what they learned from current history and from the ancient history of the nation recorded in Scripture they taught in the synagogues, which corresponded not merely to the parish churches but also to the schools - day schools and Sunday schools - of to-day.
He attempted no subjects at all commensurate with those of his great woodcuts, but contented himself for the most part with Madonnas, single figures of scripture or of the saints, some nude mythologies of a kind wholly new in northern art and founded upon the impressions received in Italy, and groups, sometimes bordering on the satirical, of humble folk and peasants.
Melanchthon replied in a brief and moderately worded treatise, setting forth Luther's first principle of the supreme authority of Scripture in opposition to the patristic writings on which Eck relied.
is a fond thing mainly invented and grounded on no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God."
He professed to rest all upon Scripture, yet accepted from the Babylon of Rome a baptism neither scriptural nor primitive, nor fulfilling the chief conditions of admission into a visible brotherhood of saints, to wit, repentance, faith, spiritual illumination and free surrender of self to Christ.
Luther feebly rejected this scripture as " a right strawy epistle."
When the end of the world foretold by Daniel did not take place, but the book of Daniel retained its validity as a sacred scripture which foretold future things, the personality of the tyrant who was God's enemy disengaged itself from that of Antiochus IV., and became merely a figure of prophecy, which was applied now to one and now to another historical phenomenon.
The historian's grandfather became within his own circle a highly esteemed interpreter of Scripture, and held fast his profession even in the time of Julian.
But the 'amora soon ceased to be a mere repeater, and developed into an original expounder of scripture and tradition.
He graduated as Doctor of the Holy Scripture, took the Wittenberg doctor's oath to defend the evangelical truth vigorously (viriliter), became a member of the Wittenberg Senate, and three weeks later succeeded Staupitz as professor of theology.
Consequently the Jews were divided into two parties - Pharisees and Sadducees - of whom the Pharisees cared only for doing or enduring the will of God as revealed in Scripture or in the events of history.
Clarke afterwards devoted himself to the study of Scripture in the original, and of the primitive Christian writers.
During the same year he published his celebrated treatise on The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity.
In his edition of the New Testament (1879-1880) he makes some severe remarks on the neglect of the study of Scripture amongst the Italian clergy.
Mingled with all these were the ancient legends of gods and heroes, accepted as inspired scripture by the people, and by philosophers in part explained away by an allegorical exegesis and in part felt increasingly as a burden to the intelligence.
His Hierozoicon, which treats of the animals of Scripture, was printed in London (2(2 vols., 1663).
Returning to America, he was appointed professor of Dogmatic Theology and Sacred Scripture, and director of the ecclesiastical seminary of Seton Hall College at South Orange, New Jersey; soon afterwards he was made vice-president of the institution; and in 1868 became president, succeeding Rev. Bernard J.
Throughout the remainder of his life his more learned brethren from time to time expounded to him the events of Scripture history and the doctrines of the faith, and all that he heard from them he reproduced in beautiful poetry.
"He sang of the creation of the world, of the origin of mankind and of all the history of Genesis, of the exodus of Israel from Egypt and their entrance into the Promised Land, of many other incidents of Scripture history, of the Lord's incarnation, passion, resurrection and ascension, of the coming of the Holy Ghost and the teaching of the apostles.
But the presbyter Hippolytus was successful in convincing the leaders of that church that the Modalistic doctrine taken in its strictness was contrary to Scripture.
Sabellius himself appears to have made use of Stoical formulas (irXaruveQ6ac,avvriXXeo-Oai), but he chiefly relied upon Scripture, especially such passages as Deut.
It was a matter of course that saints' days and church festivals were abolished as having no warrant in Scripture; Sunday alone remained, as the principal day of preaching.
In towns a week-day was to be set apart for the " exercise " or public interpretation of Scripture, in which all qualified persons in the neighbourhood were to take part, as if the whole country were a school of the Bible.
But Tobit is already quoted as "scripture" by Clement of Alexandria (Strom.
With the exception of his commentaries on scripture, nearly all his extant Syriac works are composed in metre.
Of Ephraim as a commentator on Scripture we have only imperfect means of judging.
1 Mishnah stands in contrast to Migra (" reading, scripture "); its Aram.
` Tables,' these are the Ten Words (the Decalogue); the ` Law ' is the Scripture; ` and the commandment,' that is the Mishnah: ` which I have written,' these are the Prophets and Writings (i.e.
3 the incidental prohibition of the cutting up of a roll of Scripture leads to a most valuable discussion of the arrangement of the Canon of the Old Testament, and other details including some account of the character and date of Job.
Thus, the same evidence could give rise to widely differing conflicting interpretations, which may not be directly deducible from or justified by the Scripture.
A special literature of oracles did indeed arise; the divine words were collected and the circumstances which produced them were recorded; and had Delphi become in fact the centre of Greece, as Plato conceived it, here might have been the nucleus of a scripture.
Allusions in particular passages of the Koran to the " mother of the scripture," the invisible originals of the prophet's speech, led to the doctrine of its uncreated being.
"The way and manner of dispensing this ordinance the Scripture holds out to be dipping or plunging the whole body under water."
Scripture deals, he maintains, in none but the simplest precepts, nor does it aim at anything beyond the obedient mind; it tells nought of the divine nature but what men may profitably apply to their lives.
Starting with "truth" contained in Scripture as the church's foundation, and the Word and Sacraments as means of building it up, it provides ministers and elders to be elected by the congregations, with a subordinate class of "readers," and by their means sermons and prayers each "Sunday" in every parish.
Holy Scripture and the three primitive creeds were declared to be the true foundations of Christian faith, and the Augsburg Confession was adopted.
the Catholic the Reformation in Sweden had proceeded on much the same lines as during the reign of his father, retaining all the old Catholic customs not considered contrary to Scripture.
Aphraates impresses a reader favourably by his moral earnestness, his guilelessness, his moderation in controversy, the simplicity of his style and language, his saturation with the ideas and words of Scripture.
On the other hand, he is full of cumbrous repetition, he lacks precision in argument and is prone to digression, his quotations from Scripture are often inappropriate, and he is greatly influenced by Jewish exegesis.
This early Christian scripture is one of the books militant in the world's literature.
This was mainly carried out by the adoption of a rule that all antiphons and responses should be in the exact words of Scripture, which, of course, cut out the whole class of appeals to created beings.
the Paris Breviary of 1680 by Archbishop Francois de Harlay (1625-1695) and that of 1736 by Archbishop Charles Gaspard Guillaume de Vintimille (1655-1746) - show a deep knowledge of Holy Scripture, and much careful adaptation of different texts; but during the pontificate of Pius IX.
Covering a great stretch of time and space, they do for the worshipper in the field of church history what the Scripture readings do in that of biblical history.
In later days the churches of Africa, having rich memorials of martyrdom, used them to supplement the reading of Scripture.
From July 4 to 14 he engaged with Luther on the absolute supremacy of the papacy, purgatory, penance, &c., showing a brilliant display of patristic and conciliar learning against the reformer's appeals to Scripture.
The three passages quoted are the only instances where this word occurs in Scripture; it is frequent in hymns and devotional literature as a title of Jesus Christ.
by Alcuin (1751; 2nd ed., Bristol, 1829), has nothing to do with this or with any Hebrew original, but is a mere fabrication by the printer, Jacob Ilive, who put it forward as the book " mentioned in Holy Scripture."
which may be explained when we reflect that to the faithful divination was something as essential as confession and spiritual direction to a devout Catholic now, or the study and interpretation of Scripture texts to a Protestant.
Originality of conception, vividness of presentation, fertility of imagination, wide knowledge of Scripture and a happy faculty of applying it, intense spiritual fervour, a striking physique and a powerful voice made him a great pulpit force.
"There is no trace in Scripture of a formal commission of authority for government from Christ Himself" (Hort, Chr.
Semi-Arians and Unitarians, though sufficiently distinguished from the free-thinkers by reverence for the letter of Scripture, might be held to encourage departure from the ancient landmarks.
But he showed how loosely he held the views he did not go out of his way to attack, and made it plain how little weight the letter of Scripture had for himself; and, writing with much greater power than any of the deists, he was held to have done more than any one of them to forward the cause for which they wrought.
He tried to show, both from Scripture and extra-canonical literature, that the primitive church, so far from being an incorporate body of believers with the same creed and customs, really consisted of two schools, each possessing its "own gospel" - a school of Ebionites or Judaizing Christians, and the more liberal school of Paul.
Some were content to argue their own ideas into Scripture, and those they disliked out of it; to one or two it seemed a satisfaction to discover difficulties in Scripture, to point to historical inaccuracies and moral defects.
Semler belonged, the distinction is not always easily drawn - although these rationalists professedly recognized in Scripture a real divine revelation, mingled with local and temporary elements.
Rejecting miracles and denying the infallibility of Scripture, protesting against Calvinistic views of sovereign grace and having no interest in evangelical Arminianism, the faith of such inquirers seems fairly to coincide with that of the deists.
Swedenborg himself took no steps to found a church, but having given a new interpretation of Scripture, it was inevitable that those who accepted his doctrine should separate themselves and organize a society in accordance therewith.
of Akaba, near which is the site, not identified, of the Ezion-Geber of Scripture, another of the ports whence the argosies of the Israelites sailed.
Major's voluminous writings may be grouped under (a) logic and philosophy, (b) Scripture commentary, and (c) history.
According to all the authorities, the essential qualification for the title is the denial of certain beliefs which the Pharisees held to be implicitly contained in Scripture, and therefore necessarily part of Judaism as soon as they were formulated.
With the approval of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Sadducean section embraced the outward forms of Hellenism, and out of the persecution of the orthodox which followed was born the hope of a future life which was in the circumstances the necessary corollary of God's righteousness and was discovered to be latent in Scripture.
But he undertakes to prove from Scripture that there is a higher God, who really possesses the perfections which are falsely ascribed to the lower (iii.
Clement's further development of the cases of Abraham and Rahab, however, adding as it does to the demonstration of James from Scripture of their justification "by works and not by faith only," that the particular good work which "wrought with the faith" of Abraham and Rahab to their justification was "hospitality" (1 Clem.
in 2 vols., 1874-1875), by making concessions to modern criticism, by spiritualizing and adapting the old dogmas, by attacking the idea of an infallible canon of Scripture and the conventional theory of inspiration, by laying stress on the human side of Scripture and insisting on the progressive character of revelation, brought him into conflict with his former friends.
He considers " bodily effects " incidentals to the real work of God, but his own mystic devotion and the experiences of his wife during the Awakening (which he gives in detail) make him think that the divine visitation usually overpowers the body, a view in support of which he quotes Scripture.
The design of the work was to show, by an appeal mainly to the tribunal of Scripture, that there are no facts or doctrines of the "Gospel," or the "Scriptures," or "Christian revelation," which, when revealed, are not perfectly plain, intelligible and reasonable, being neither contrary to reason nor incomprehensible to it.
He read prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays to himself and his clerk, beginning the exhortation "Dearly beloved Roger, the Scripture moveth you and me in sundry places."
The only procession formerly prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer is that in the order of the burial of the dead, where the rubric directs that "the priest and clerks meeting the corpse at the entrance of the churchyard, and going before it, either into the church, or towards the grave, shall say, or sing" certain verses of Scripture.
The third section consists of the Apostolic Canons already referred to, the last and most significant of which places the Constitutions and the two epistles of Clement in the canon of Scripture, and omits the Apocalypse.
One of the most remarkable of Sir Isaac's theological productions is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scripture, in a letter to a friend.
Church practice was not the same everywhere at the same time; just because Scripture only gave the ruling principles, therefore the different churches worked out their application in different ways.
His great work was that of the critic. He was the first to reject with sufficient proof the equal value of the Old and the New Testaments, the uniform authority of all parts of the Bible, the divine authority of the traditional canon of Scripture, the inspiration and supposed correctness of the text of the Old and New Testaments, and, generally, the identification of revelation with Scripture.
Of course, we might seek to infer an unwritten tradition of Christ's words; but without pedantic ultra-Protestant devotion to written scripture, one may distrust on scientific grounds the attempt to reconstruct tradition by a process of inference.
Contemporaneously with the new and vivid intellectual life of an Anselm or an Abelard, the " freezing up " of traditionalism is evidenced by the preparation of volumes of Sentences from Scripture and the Fathers.
In regard to Scripture alone does he maintain that seeming error or discrepancy must be due to our misinterpretation.
If throughout the middle ages Scripture is treated as the ultimate authority in doctrine, yet Abelard seems to stand alone in definitely contrasting Scripture with later authorities.
They are as litigious as a lawsuit - without any summing up; the end comes in a moment with a text of Scripture or an utterance by one of the great Fathers.
Even in our own time, popular Protestant evangelicalism joins with the newer emphasis upon conversion the two great early Protestant appeals - to Atonement and to infallible Scripture.
Uncertainty as to the authorities determining religious belief - Scripture, tradition, Fathers, Doctors - is now, at least potentially, at an end; the pope can rule every point definitely, if he sees good to do so.
It is a modern commonplace - Loofs dates the formula from about 1825 - that Protestantism has two principles: a " formal principle," the authority of Scripture, and a " material principle," the doctrine of justification by faith.
Scripture the true source of doctrine, but the religious consciousness its ordering principle.
Along with the fundamental doctrine, certain characteristics have always marked its professors; namely, a large degree of toleration, a minimizing of essentials, a repugnance to formulated creed, an historical study of Scripture.
It is noteworthy that in England the Socinian controversy, initiated by Biddle, preceded the Arian controversy initiated by Samuel Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity (1712).
The Toleration Act was amended (1779) by substituting belief in Scripture for belief in the Anglican (doctrinal) articles; in 1813 the penal acts against deniers of the Trinity were repealed.
That this episode belongs to J no one need ever forget, since the only parallel in Scripture to the speaking ass is the serpent that spoke in Eden.
that no governance or ordinance is to be esteemed a law of God which is not founded on Scripture, that every humble-minded Christian man or woman is able without "fail and defaut" to find out the true sense of Scripture, and that having done so he ought to listen to no arguments to the contrary; he elsewhere adds a fourth (i.
102), that if a man be not only meek but also keep God's law he shall have a true understanding of Scripture, even though "no man ellis teche him saue God."
A paper on the " Roman Commonwealth" which belongs to this period, expresses convictions about religious liberty and the relations of religion to the state that were modified and deepened afterwards; objections to the sacerdotal conception of Christianity appear in another article; short work is made of ecclesiastical claims to infallibility in the interpretation of Scripture in a third; a scheme of utilitarian ethics, wider than that of Hobbes, is suggested in a fourth.
He was always disposed to liberal ecclesiastical concessions for the sake of peace, and he recommended harmonious co-operation with the civil magistrate in all matters of worship and government that were not expressly determined by Scripture.
But Locke accepted Holy Scripture as infallible with the reverence of a Puritan.
Yet he did not, like many Puritans, mean Scripture as interpreted by himself or by his sect.
It is assumed that divine commands have been implicitly given for all occasions of life, and that they are to be ascertained in particular cases by interpretation of the general rules obtained from texts of scripture, and by inference from scriptural examples.
system out of the heterogeneous data furnished by Scripture, the fathers, the church and Aristotle - equally unquestioned, if not equally venerated, authorities.
The commands of God are to be ascertained " from scripture and the light of nature combined."
Paley, however, holds that scripture is given less to teach morality than to illustrate it by example and enforce it by new sanctions and greater certainty, and that the light of nature makes it clear that God wills the happiness of his creatures.
He thus undoubtedly simplifies his system, and avoids the doubtful inferences from nature and Scripture in which Paley's position is involved; but this gain is dearly purchased.
Among his writings (most of which were published posthumously) are a Historia Transubstantiationis Papalis (1675), Notes and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer (17to) and A Scholastical History of the Canon of Holy Scripture (1657).
These objects include opposition to the claims of Rome and to autocratic interference with the Church on the part of either political or ecclesiastical authorities, efforts to induce the laity to claim and exercise their privileges as members of the Church, the assertion of the right of the clergy, laity and both lay and clerical professors to search for and proclaim freely the truth in independence of the creeds and the letter of Scripture.
The limits of the freedom of teaching are not prescribed by the letter of Scripture, but a fundamental requirement of Protestantism is free inquiry in and about the Scriptures.
Salvian sets himself to prove God's constant guidance, first by the facts of Scripture history, and secondly by the enumeration of special texts declaring this truth.
In it he chiefly dwells upon the evidence from Scripture in favour of the belief that the soul retains its intelligent consciousness after its separation from the body - passing by questions of philosophical speculation, as tending on such a subject only to minister to an idle curiosity.
Besides preaching every day in each alternate week, he taught theology three days in the week, attended weekly meetings of his consistory, read the Scriptures once a week in the congregation, carried on an extensive correspondence on a multiplicity of subjects, prepared commentaries on the books of Scripture, and was engaged repeatedly in controversy with the opponents of his opinions.
Calvin replied to him in a work published in 1543, in which he defends his own opinions at length, both by general reasonings and by an appeal to both Scripture and the Fathers, especially Augustine.
Including discourses taken down from his lips by faithful auditors, we have from him expository comments or homilies on nearly all the books of Scripture, written partly in Latin and partly in French.
Hence depravity and corruption, diffused through all parts of the soul, attach to all men, and this first makes them obnoxious to the anger of God, and then comes forth in works which the Scripture calls works of the flesh (Gal.
The permanent officers in the church are pastors and teachers, to the former of whom it belongs to preside over the discipline of the church, to administer the sacraments, and to admonish and exhort the members; while the latter occupy themselves with the exposition of Scripture, so that pure and wholesome doctrine may be retained.
The fundamental principle of this classical work is, that religious feeling, the sense of absolute dependence on God as communicated by Jesus Christ through the church, and not the creeds or the letter of Scripture or the rationalistic understanding, is the source and law of dogmatic theology.
On the whole, however, the qualified statement is his real view; merely rational proofs are always, he affirms, to be tested by Scripture.
Josiah's acceptance of D made it the first canonical book of scripture.
In estimating the religious value of Deuteronomy it should never be forgotten that upon this passage the greatest eulogy ever pronounced on any scripture was pronounced by Christ himself, when he said "on these words hang all the law and the prophets," and it is also well to remember that when tempted in the wilderness he repelled each suggestion of the Tempter by a quotation from Deuteronomy.
Luther says " it closely resembles the rest of the books of Holy Scripture, and would not be unworthy to be enumerated with them."
Even in the time of Copernicus some well-meaning persons, especially those of the reformed persuasion, had suspected a discrepancy between the new view of the solar system and certain passages of Scripture - a suspicion strengthened by the antiChristian inferences drawn from it by Giordano Bruno; but the question was never formally debated until Galileo's brilliant disclosures, enhanced by his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic zeal, irresistibly challenged for it the attention of the authorities.
On the 24th of February 1616 the consulting theologians of the Holy Office characterized the two propositions - that the sun is immovable in the centre of the world, and that the earth has a diurnal motion of rotation - the first as "absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, because expressly contrary to Holy Scripture," and the second as "open to the same censure in philosophy, and at least erroneous as to faith."
The scheme at first was no more than a series of evening meetings in a hall (the Oratory), at which there were prayers, hymns, readings from Scripture, from the fathers, and from the Martyrology, followed by a lecture, or by discussion of some religious question proposed for consideration.
"Satan appears in Scripture under four leading characters: - first as the tempter of freedom, who desires to bring to decision, secondly as the accuser, who by virtue of the law retorts criminality on man; thirdly as the instrument of the Divine, which brings evil and death upon men; fourthly and lastly he is described, especially in the New Testament, as the enemy of God and man."
It is also well known that the emperor Alexander Severus found a place for several Scripture characters and even for Christ in his lararium (Lamprid.
He held that, apart from an interior and unreasoned conviction, there is no cogent proof of the existence of God; and in Tract 85 he dealt with the difficulties of the Creed and of the canon of Scripture, with the apparent implication that they are insurmountable unless overridden by the authority of an infallible Church.
He takes each article separately, discusses it clause by clause, explains the meaning of each word, and justifies each statement from Scripture.
After replying to the question of Deogratias, and giving sundry counsels as to the best method of interesting catechumens, Augustine concludes by giving a model catechetical lecture, in which he covers the whole of biblical history, beginning from the opening chapters of Genesis, and laying particular stress on the doctrinal parts of Scripture.
In June 1639, however, a more definite statement of political principles was framed, in which it was clearly stated that the rules of Scripture should determine the ordering of the church, the choice of magistrates, the making and repeal of laws, the dividing of inheritances, and all other matters of public import; that only church members could become free burgesses and officials of the colony; that the free burgesses should choose twelve men who should choose seven others, and that these should organize the church and the civil government.
The grace of God hath two common noted acceptations in the scripture.
aeonis new eon would bring forth a new community of perfected beings who have no need of clergy or sacraments or scripture.
References 1 For example, Wyclif's emphasis on Scripture was theocentric, not anthropocentric, in both its orientation and influence.
But they are the words of an inspired apostle; and to reject such testimony is to undermine the authority of Holy Scripture.
Scripture will often form the basis for the day.
It is so clear in scripture it beggars belief that people can't see it.
bogglend boggling statistic was that the Lord's Prayer or some portion of Scripture had been embossed in 419 languages and dialects.
His rhetoric would allow nothing less than absolute certainty about Scripture's absolute clarity.
The presence of the Spirit of God, the promised comforter, had then become a deep conviction of my soul from scripture.
It is a question of obeying the command of Scripture.
The contrast with the teaching of Scripture and the reformed confessions could not be more apparent.
Nothing in holy scripture, the catholic creeds, or our historic formularies makes it necessary to go against this primal witness.
Only two of the men are mentioned elsewhere in Scripture (Stephen and Philip ), but they are nowhere called deacons.
No papal decrees, no oral tradition, no latter-day prophesy can contain truth apart from Scripture that is genuinely fundamental.
distorts what Scripture is heard to say.
I have promised to uphold the doctrine of the Church of England in which scripture is supreme; I hope I shall do so.
TRUTH the truth of the Gospel, of Jesus, of Scripture is now entrusted to us in this generation.
exegesis of the relevant passages of Scripture.
The evocative language of Scripture demands to be read with something other than the emaciated imagination of the scientific exegete.
This book brings Scripture alive to prove that church is not only expendable, it hinders spiritual growth.
Article XX says you must not, " so expound one place of Scripture that it be repugnant to another.
extempore sermon is a model of Biblical exposition and practical application, comparing Scripture with Scripture.
Unless sin is to be awfully punished, the language of Scripture appears extravagant.
fallible men: their sinful failings are exhibited in Scripture for us.
All Scripture has passed through human instrumentality; consequently, all Scripture has become fallible.
This idea is very foreign to us in our society and yet it is basic to our understanding of Scripture.
foretell is not the cosmic war and fiery collapse of mankind foretold in sacred scripture.
fountauthenticating each other's authority, Christ and Scripture coalesce into a single font of authority.
However, for the Gnostics true gnosis was beyond Scripture.
holy scripture, that's for sure.
ignorance of scripture is a matter that I do think worthy of comment.
interpretation of a specific passage must not contradict the total teaching of Scripture on a point.
Assuming the cause is not some physical malady, Scripture contains the only reliable remedy.
Many assumptions made, especially that the reader knows Scripture, church, etc. Too much managerial speak.
That is, the historical evidence to answer the kinds of questions that we pose to Scripture is often very meager.
meditatet large amounts of time meditating on individual verses of Scripture, and aspects of God's character.
misquoted scripture to prove his point.
That's what Paul said to Timothy: ' The scripture saith, thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn.
A5 paperback from Scripture Union £ 3.99 Airlock - Future Perfect Most young people find dated Bible reading guides very difficult to stick with.
passage of scripture or subject gets a grip in your heart.
Sometimes, as a self-imposed penance, he would stand up to his neck in a lake of cold water, reciting Scripture.
penmanpenmen of the scripture report their own failings, which men will not do.
polemic interpretation of scripture as literal truth.
prophecytells us in the New Testament that no prophesy of scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation.
After evening repast till bed-time their thoughts would be best taken up in the easy grounds of religion and the story of Scripture.
But they are often reproved and condemned in scripture.
resurrected into the kingdom after three days according to scripture.
sacred scripture for the benefit of the less learned.
JUNE 1896 Mrs Fiennes entertained the Scripture Union and the children to tea in the small schoolroom at Milton Keynes.
He was also a great man for interpreting sacred scripture for the benefit of the less learned.
Some work well like Nicole reciting scripture but some are a little pointless and would be been better left off.
scripture fulfilled in your hearing " .
We must remember the purpose of God in giving the inspired scripture.
scripture quotations above are from the RSV Catholic Edition.
scripture passage I preached on.
Since no scripture verse was brought forward, we cannot say that he meant scripture verse was brought forward, we cannot say that he meant scripture.
summarize what I am getting at with two passages of Scripture.
synonym used in Scripture for the sea.
translated more literally: " all scripture is breathed out by God.
Scripture is absolutely trustworthy; therefore, it must be obeyed.
unlettered folk who know the Scripture not except from hearsay.
They had a scripture verse on one side and an abstract design or photo on the reverse.
She holds the sacred scripture in one hand (representing jnana yoga) and a lotus blossom in the other.
The first decree (Decretum de fide et ecclesia) declared that the Catholic Church has no right to introduce new dogmas, but only to preserve in its original purity the faith once delivered by Christ to His apostles, and is infallible only so far as it conforms to Holy Scripture and true tradition; the Church, moreover is a purely spiritual body and has no authority in things secular.
I Descartes, with an, xnusual fondness for the letter of Scripture, quotes oftener than once in support of this monstrous doctrine the dictum, " the blood is the life "; and he remarks, with some sarcasm possibly, that it is a comfortable theory for the eaters of animal flesh.
A second theory is contended for by Principal Campbell in his treatise on the eldership, and by others also, that there is no warrant in Scripture for the eldership as it exists in the Presbyterian Church; that the ruling elder is not, and is not designed to be, a counterpart of the New Testament elder; in other words, that he is not a presbyter, but only a layman chosen to represent the laity in the church courts and permitted to assist in the government of the church.
But although the conservative party was successful in inducing successive general assemblies to lay repeatedly stronger stress on the verbal inerrancy of Holy Scripture and to make belief in such inerrancy a requisite of teachers in theological seminaries and of candidates for the ministry, there was in other matters an increasing liberal tendency.
He had published in 5539 his Kriegbi chlein des Friedens (pseudonymous), his Schrifftliche and ganz gri ndliche Auslegung des 64 Psalms, and his Das verbiitschierte mit sieben Siegeln verschlossene Buck (a biblical index, exhibiting the dissonance of Scripture); in 1541 his Spruchworter (a collection of proverbs, several times reprinted with variations); in 1542 a new edition of his Paradoxa; and some smaller works.
In Siena he wrote his Actio in pontifices romanos et eorum asseclas, a vigorous indictment, in twenty "testimonia," against what he now believed to be the fundamental error of the Roman Church in subordinating Scripture to tradition, as well as against various particular doctrines, such as that of ' P. Orsi in Notizie degli Scavi (1899), 45 2 -47 1; Romische Quartalschrift (1898), 624-631.
That the Arabian species was one of the earliest animals to be domesticated is evident from the record of Scripture, where six thousand camels are said to have formed part of the wealth of the patriarch Job.
Natural Law, he claims, leaves room for discretionary arrangements like episcopacy; Scripture does not mean to supersede the light of reason.
ANTILEGOMENA (avTcXeyo / eva, contradicted or disputed), an epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable time admitted to be genuine, or received into the canon of Scripture.
He was also called upon to do battle for his principle against men like Caspar Schwenkfeld (1490-1561) and Sebastian Franck (1500-1545), the latter of whom developed a system of pantheistic mysticism, and went so far in his opposition to the letter as to declare the whole of the historical element in Scripture to be but a mythical representation of eternal truth.
the authority of Scripture in the Church and the supremacy of the king in the state, and Practyse of Prelates (1530), a strong indictment of the Roman Church and also of Henry VIII.'s divorce proceedings, were all printed at Marburg.
(The first volume, containing his life and correspondence, was issued separately in two parts, 1831-1832.) His first appearance as an author was in 1761, when he published the Scripture Doctrine of Remission and the Rudiments of English Grammar.
to listen (to the service of song or the reading of Scripture) is better than to offer a foolish (thoughtless) sacrifice; v.
Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture (1899), pp. 4 2 7 sqq., 570.
The importance of the former lies in the simple cast of his religious thought, his independence of theological formulas, his constant adherence to the letter of Scripture, his quaint exegesis, and the light he throws on the circumstances of his time, especially (i) the feeling between Jews and Christian, and (2) the position and sympathies of the Christian subjects of Sapor II.
Here stood Ur (Mugheir, more correctly Muqayyar) the earliest capital of the country; and Babylon, with its suburb, Borsippa (Birs Nimrud), as well as the two Sipparas (the Sepharvaim of Scripture, now Abu Habba), occupied both the Arabian and Chaldaean sides of the river (see Babylon).
Clement comments on it, as on the canonical scriptures, in his Hypotyposes; Origen cites it in the same spirit as scripture (C. Celsum, i.
"Protesting, that if any man will note in this our Confession any article or sentence repugning to God's Holy Word, that it would please him, of his gentleness, and for Christian charity's sake, to admonish us of the same in writ, and we of our honour and fidelity do promise unto him satisfaction from the mouth of God; that is, from His Holy Scripture, or else reformation of that which he shall prove to be amiss.
1554), one of the best Roman Catholic preachers of the day, a man noted for his "emphasis on Scripture, his grasp of evangelical truth, his earnest piety, amiable character and sustained power in the pulpit," fully admitted.
His Christology was in the main orthodox, though he rejected terms (such as Trinity) which he could not find in Scripture, and held a Valentinian doctrine of the celestial origin of the flesh of Christ.
" In the twelfth place," the declaration characteristically concluded, " it is our conclusion and final resolution that if one or more of the articles here set forth should not be in agreement with the word of God, as we think they are, such articles will we willingly retract if it be proved by a clear explanation of Scripture really to be against the word of God."
The convocations were required to abjure the papal supremacy by declaring " that the bishop of Rome has not in Scripture any greater jurisdiction in the kingdom of England than any other foreign bishop."
and his companions undertook to defend the following propositions: (1) That the Holy Christian Church, of which Christ is the only Head, is born of the Word of God, abides therein, and does not listen to the voice of a stranger; (2) that this Church imposes no laws on the conscience of people without the sanction of the Word of God, and that the laws of the Church are binding only in so far as they agree with the Word; (3) that Christ alone is our righteousness and our salvation, and that to trust to any other merit or satisfaction is to deny Him; (4) that it cannot be proved from the Holy Scripture that the body and blood of Christ are corporeally present in the bread and in the wine of the Lord's Supper; (5) that the mass, in which Christ is offered to God the Father for the sins of the living and of the dead, is contrary to Scripture and a gross affront to the sacrifice and death of the Saviour; (6) that we should not pray to dead mediators and intercessors, but to Jesus Christ alone; (7) that there is no trace of purgatory in Scripture; (8) that to set up pictures and to adore them is also contrary to Scripture, and that images and pictures ought to be destroyed where there is danger of giving them adoration; (9) that marriage is lawful to all, to the clergy as well as to the laity; (I o) that shameful living is more disgraceful among the clergy than among the laity.
If he adopted ideas then in the air, whether of Anabaptist or other origin (see p. 706, footnote 1), he did so as seeing them in Scripture.
The extraordinary ambiguity and uncertainty which allegorical interpretation tacitly ascribed to Scripture, and the ease with which heretical as well as orthodox teaching could be represented as " hidden " under the literal sense, was early perceived, but instead of this leading to any real check on even wild subjectivity in interpretation and insistence on reaching the literal sense, it created an ominous principle that maintained much of its influence long after the supremacy of allegorism was overthrown.
This is the principle that all interpretation of Scripture must be according to the Regula fidei - that all interpretation which makes Scripture contradict or' offend the traditions of the Church is wrong.
because the ambiguity of the consonants without the vowels was a troublesome fact in the way of the extreme Protestant doctrine of the inspiration, verbal infallibility and sufficiency of Scripture, while it was by no means unwelcome to Catholic theologians with their doctrine of the need for an authoritative interpretation.
As far as possible this survey shall be cited verbatim: " Who were the original writers of the several books of Holy Scripture has not been made evident by any sufficient testimony of other history, which is the only proof of matter of fact; nor can be, by any argument of natural reason: for reason serves only to convince the truth, not of fact, butof consequence.
Moule, Historical Catalogue of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture (London, vol.
The Socinians embodied their tenets in the larger and smaller works drawn up by Fausto Sozzini and Schmalz, and published at Rakow in Poland in 1605; 2 modern Unitarians have modern catechisms. The Quakers or Friends possess a kind of catechism said to have been written by George Fox in 1660, in which father and son are respectively questioner and answerer, and an interesting work by Robert Barclay, in which texts of Scripture form the replies.
measure of independence and felicity under the law, the hope that connected itself with the House of David was not likely to rise to fresh life, especially as a considerable proportion of the not very numerous passages of Scripture which speak of the ideal king might with a little straining be applied to the rising star of the new dynasty (cf.
He had believed in the prophecies of a 16th-century shoemaker poet, Bandarra, dealing with the coming of a ruler who would inaugurate an epoch of unparalleled prosperity for the church and for Portugal, and in the Quinto Imperio or Clavis Prophetarum he had endeavoured to prove the truth of his dreams from passages of Scripture.
Of Biblical and exegetical works we have a considerable part of Eusebius' Commentaries on the Psalms and on Isaiah, which are monuments of learning, industry and critical acumen, though marred by the use of the allegorical method characteristic of the school of Origen; also a work on the names of places mentioned in Scripture, or the Onomasticon, the only one extant of a number of writings on Old Testament topography; and an epitome and some fragments of a work in two parts on Gospel Questions and Solutions, the first part dealing with the genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke, the second with the apparent discrepancies between the various gospel accounts of the resurrection.
It maintained the simplicity of Apostolic Christianity against the elaborate system of a corrupt Philp t hierarchy, the teaching of Scripture alone against the commentaries of the fathers and the traditions of the church, the right of private judgment against the dictation of ecclesiastical authority, the individual responsibility of every human soul before God in opposition to the papal control over purgatorial punishments, which had led to the revolting degradation of venal indulgences.
On the same prelate fell the task of conducting a public controversy with the archbishop of Armagh, George Dowdall, which of course ended in the conversion [From Anglo-Norman Invasion] him as lord-lieutenant, the litany was chanted in English, both cathedrals having been painted, and scripture texts substituted for " pictures and popish fancies."
Most men do not know that any nation but the Hebrews have had a scripture.
In telling the story of Scripture redemptive historical preaching is telling our story.
The righteous were to be resurrected into the kingdom after three days according to scripture.
No Scripture gives an account of anyone seeing Jesus rise from the dead.
And He began to say unto them, " This day is this scripture fulfilled in your hearing ".
The first section of Jewish scripture is the Torah or written law.
Which part of the Bible is holy scripture for the Jewish people?
Scripture quotations above are from the RSV Catholic Edition.
Can you imagine the personal story behind our scripture reading?
Since no scripture verse was brought forward, we cannot say that he meant scripture.
That is what it means to have an inspired Scripture and this is the import of the sola scriptura principle for doctrine.
Let me summarize what I am getting at with two passages of Scripture.
The land of Egypt, in scripture, is often symbolic of the world, a world which is no friend of Grace.
Deep is a synonym used in Scripture for the sea.
The words that he wrote could be translated more literally: all scripture is breathed out by God.
It is Scripture, the word of God, which provides testimony to God 's triune nature in all its parts.
Among them are unlettered folk who know the Scripture not except from hearsay.
When the Papists denied the use of the scripture in the vulgar tongue, oh !
Their current work includes producing vernacular media materials to provide indigenous Guatemalans with Scripture in their own languages.
By surrounding yourself with biblical images and scripture, you can reinforce your Christian beliefs.
Christian decor tends to lean towards very traditional American style decor coupled with inspirational sayings and Bible scripture.
On the site, there are pages of scripture, pictures and helpful articles that provide inspiration and hope.
Baby Scripture: Use any of the bible verses in this sticker set to enhance your baptismal layout.
Types of Meditation: Meditation takes on many forms such as Transcendental Meditation, using guided scripts and reading Scripture.
We are reminded in Scripture, "Don't sin by letting anger gain control over you.
Christians may meditate on a scripture readings, while others may repeat the name of a sacred deity, or something like the Om mantra practiced in Eastern religions.
Life Management Christian Counseling uses Belief Therapy, using prayer, moral guidance, spiritual counseling and Scripture reference.
From delicately screened verses of scripture to clever plays on words, there are dozens of Christian teen clothing options for today's teen to look unique and be proud of their faith.
Family and friends who helped decorate the reception hall, gave a scripture reading at the wedding ceremony, or helped make the food are all examples of people who should be written a longer thank you note.