Rumanian sentence example

rumanian
  • After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
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  • In 1877 it was nearly destroyed by the Russian artillery stationed in the Rumanian town of Giurgevo, on the opposite bank of the Danube.
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  • The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.
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  • Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits.
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  • Murgoci the Rumanian amber is true succinite.
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  • This was the original of all the medieval forms of oath more judaico, which still prevailed in many European lands till the 19th century, and are even now maintained by some of the Rumanian courts.
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  • Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language into the church as its official language.
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  • Rumanian folksongs were Magyarized by George Ember, Julian;Grozescu and Joseph Vulcanu, under the title Roman nepdalok (Budapest, 1877).
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  • Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
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  • No orders were given for the evacuation of Slovakia; in Transylvania an impossible shaped line was drawn, such as left Cluj (Kolozsvar) and many pure Rumanian districts in Magyar hands; while the Rumanians were incensed by the assignment of Temesvar (Temisoara) and the whole Banat to Serbia.
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  • The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
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  • This has the disadvantage that while the Serbs are stronger than any other single race in the two towns, their cession involved the loss of many purely Rumanian villages by Rumania, and also her loss of the important railway line connecting Temesvar southward with the Danube.
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  • The bibliography of Voltaire is a very large subject, and it has been the special occupation of a Rumanian diplomatist of much erudition and judgment, Georges Bengesco, Bibliographic de Voltaire (4 vols., Paris, 1882-90).
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  • This work was written in Egypt, according to James, and survives also in Slavonic, Rumanian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.
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  • It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary, two training schools for teachers - one Hungarian, and the other Rumanian - and a conservatoire for music. The town played an important part in the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, and possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
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  • Of the three Latin races, Italian, Ladin and Rumanian, national fragments were to be found in Austria.
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  • The Rumanian Club made a similar declaration on Jan.
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  • In addition to numerous original works she put into literary form many of the legends current among the Rumanian peasantry.
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  • Cuvinte Sufletesci, religious meditations in Rumanian (Bucharest, 1888), was also translated into German (Bonn, 1890), under the name of Seelen-Gespreiche.
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  • Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
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  • A steam ferry connects it with Calafat, on the Rumanian bank of the Danube, and there is a branch railway to Mezdra, on the main line Sofia-Plevna.
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  • Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
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  • The Black Sea squadron of the Rumanian fleet is stationed here.
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  • The large skete of St Andrew and some others belong to the Russians; there are also Rumanian and Georgian sketae.
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  • Three main thoroughfares, the Plevna, Lipscani, and Vacaresci, skirt the left bank of the river; the Elizabeth Boulevard, and the Calea Victories, or " Avenue of Victory," which commemorates the Rumanian success at Plevna, in 1877, radiate east and north, respectively, from the Lipscani, and meet a broad road which surrounds all sides of Bucharest, except the north-west.
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  • The Rumanian franc, or leu (" lion"), so called from the image it bore, came likewise from Craiova.
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  • It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox (Rumanian) archbishop, and of the superintendent of the Protestants for the Transylvanian circle.
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  • Even with the addition of the " Latin " (Rumanian and Italian) seats the " German-Latin block " amounted only to 257.
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  • The efforts of the Rumanian inhabitants to secure recognition as a fourth "nation," and the opposition of the non-Magyar population to a closer union with Hungary, led to troubles early in the 19th century, culminating in 1848.
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  • Finally, beyond the Balkans lies the great Rumanian depression, occupied chiefly by undisturbed Cretaceous and Tertiary strata.
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  • Only a portion of the widely-spread Ruman or Vlach race, which extends over a great part of Transylvania, south Hungary and Bessarabia, as well as the Rumanian kingdom, falls within the limits of the Peninsula.
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  • The Servian, Bulgarian and Rumanian languages have borrowed largely from the Turkish in their vocabularies, but not in their structural forms, and have adopted many words from the Greek.
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  • Certain remarkable analogies between Albanian and the other languages of the Peninsula, especially Bulgarian and Rumanian, have been supposed to point to the influence exercised by the primitive speech upon the idioms of the immigrant races.
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  • The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaelsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.
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  • His rest lasted less than two days; for when the imminence of the enemy attack was confirmed by two deserting enemy officers, of Rumanian nationality, he returned to resume his command, reaching Cormons late on the night of Oct.
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  • The first alone had the right to cover their heads and wore a felt hat (hence tarabostesei= 7rLX04 opoc, pileati); they formed a privileged class, and were the predecessors of the Rumanian boyars.
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  • With the religion the Dacians also adopted the language of the conquerors, and modern Rumanian is full of Latin words easily recognizable.
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  • He was a candidate for the Moldavian throne in 1859, and subsequently a prominent member of the Russophil party in the Rumanian parliament.
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  • Immediately after the Greek revolution, Prince John Sturdza took an active part in subduing the roving bands of Greek Hetairists in Moldavia; he transformed the Greek elementary schools into Rumanian schools and laid the foundation for that scientific national development which Prince Michael Sturdza continued after 1834.
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  • He was appointed permanent secretary of the Rumanian Academy, and became a recognized authority on Rumanian numismatics.
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  • In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 he joined the Russians before Plevna, and being placed in command of the combined Russian and Rumanian forces, forced Osman Pasha to surrender.
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  • A local synod at Constantinople, in August 1872, pronounced it schismatical; Antioch, Alexandria and Greece followed suit; Jerusalem pronounced a modified condemnation; and the Servian and Rumanian churches avoided any definite expression of opinion.
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  • At the end of this period, as the title had been held by many vassals of Turkey, its retention was considered inconsistent with the growth of Rumanian independence.
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  • It was therefore discarded in favour of domn (dominus, " lord"), which continued to be the official princely title up to the proclamation of a Rumanian kingdom in 1881.
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  • Henceforward, for 290 m., the Rumanian shore is a desolate fen-country, varied only by a few hills, by cities, and by lagoons often 15 m.
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  • It is fed by many tributaries, which rise in the Carpathians as mountain torrents, growing broad and sluggish as they flow south-eastward through the central Rumanian plain.
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  • Its chief Rumanian tributaries are the Basheu (Baseii) and Jijia, rivers of the north.
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  • Its high crystalline rocks, covered with sedimentary formations, descend abruptly towards the delta, but more gradually towards the south, where the Bulgarian steppes encroach upon Rumanian soil.
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  • Over 40 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) have been observed in the Rumanian rivers.
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  • At the beginning of the 10th century the Rumanian petroleum deposits were among the most important in the world.
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  • There are three breeds of Rumanian oxen, besides the peculiar black buffaloes, with horns lying almost flat along their necks.
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  • The Rumanian system of land tenure dates from 1864, when most of the land was held in large estates, owned privately, or by the state or by monasteries.
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  • The coarse-grained grey Rumanian caviare is forwarded to Berlin, and there blended with Russian caviare.
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  • The principal markets for Rumanian fish are Turkey, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
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  • The following table shows the value of Rumanian imports and exports for five years: - Year.
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  • In 1908 the chief consumers of Rumanian goods were (in order) Belgium, Great Britain and Italy; the chief exporters to Rumania were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain and France.
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  • The wide fluctuations in Rumanian commerce are largely due to the dependence of the country on the grain harvest.
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  • All taxes and customs dues must be paid in gold, and, owing to the small quantities issued from the Rumanian mint, foreign gold is current, especially French 20-franc pieces (equal at par to 20 lei), Turkish gold lire (22.70), Old Russian Imperials (20.60) and English sovereigns of (25.22).
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  • In 1869, the first Rumanian railway was opened, between Bucharest and Giurgevo, its port.
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  • The inner walls are often hung with hand-woven tapestries, which harmonize well with the smokeblackened rafters, the primitive loom and the huge Dutch stove characteristic of a prosperous Rumanian farm.
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  • The dead are borne to the grave with uncovered faces, and a Rumanian funeral is a scene of much barbaric display.
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  • The main provisions of Rumanian law are drawn from the codes of western powers, especially the Code Napoleon.
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  • At the accession of Prince Charles, the Rumanian army consisted of raw levies, led by adventurers from any country, provided with no uniform, and, in many cases, armed only with pikes or sabres.
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  • The Rumanian navy is divided into two squadrons; one for the Danube, with headquarters at Galatz; one for the Black Sea, with headquarters at Constantza.
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  • The Rumanian Church had claimed its independence from very ancient times, but under the Turkish suzerainty and Phanariote hospodars Greeks were generally elected as bishops, and the influence of the Greek patriarch at Constantinople came to be more and more felt.
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  • In Hungary there are a uniate metropolitan and three bishops belonging to the Rumanian church.
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  • Painting and sculpture, like modern Rumanian architecture, are still in their infancy.
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  • Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours.
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  • In later Rumanian history there arose a class who obtained their rank by merit or favour, and did not necessarily bequeath it to their heirs.
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  • The treaty of 1774 had given Russia a firm foothold in Rumanian politics.
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  • The practice initiated by the more liberal Phanariotes of sending Rumanian students to the French, German and Italian universities tended in the same direction.
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  • The first Rumanian ministry formed under the new prince was composed of the leading statesmen of all political parties, care being taken that the two provinces should be equally represented.
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  • The new ministry, of which Bratianu was the leading spirit, showed considerable energy: a concession was granted for the construction of the first Rumanian railway, from Bucharest to Giurgevo, and the reorganization of the army was undertaken.
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  • Matters were brought to a crisis by the Prussian government threatening to force the Rumanian government to provide for the unpaid coupons.
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  • Meanwhile the Porte, in issuing Midhat Pasha's famous scheme of reforms, had greatly irritated Rumanian politicians by including their country in the same category as the other privileged provinces, and designating its inhabitants as Ottoman subjects.
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  • The Rumanian government made a platonic protest against the crossing of the frontier, and the Rumanian troops fell back as the Russians advanced; provisions and stores of all kinds were supplied to the invading army against cash payments in gold, and the railways and telegraphs were freely placed at its disposal.
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  • The Rumanian chambers were assembled on the 26th of April, and the convention with Russia was sanctioned.
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  • On the 29th of January the Rumanian agent at St Petersburg was officially informed of the intention of the Russian government to regain posses sion of the Rumanian portion of Bessarabia, i.e.
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  • Bratianu and Cogalniceanu were sent to Berlin to endeavour to prevail on the representatives of the Powers there assembled in June 1878 to veto the cession of Bessarabia to Russia; but the Rumanian delegates were not permitted to attend the sittings of the congress until the Powers had decided in favour of the Russian claim.
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  • It was further decided to admit to naturalization the 883 Jewish soldiers who had served in the war; but with all other Jews individual naturalization was required, and this was hedged about by so many difficulties, a special vote of the legislature being required, with a two-thirdsmajority in each individual case, that although the compromise thus effected was accepted by the powers, the actual result was that, from 1880 to 1884, out of 385 persons who were naturalized in Rumania, only 71 were Rumanian Jews.
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  • Italy was the first of the Powers to notify its recognition of Rumanian independence (December 1879); but Bismarck succeeded in prevailing on the Western Powers not Estab- to give official recognition until Rumania should have purchased the railways from their German owners.
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  • To refute this charge, the ministry proposed the elevation of the Rumanian principality into the kingdom of Rumania.
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  • The first of these maintained that the government should be essentially Rumanian, and, while maintaining friendly relations with foreign Powers, should in no wise allow them to interfere with interal affairs.
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  • Austria and Russia alike resented the decision to fortify Bucharest with and the Sereth line, adopted by the Rumanian govern which prohibited foreigners from holding lands.
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  • A popular agitation was raised on the subject of certain subsidies made by the Rumanians for the support of the Rumanian schools at Kronstadt in Transylvania, and Sturdza was accused of too great subserviency to the Hungarian government.
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  • South of the Danube its chief political interest centred in the Kutzo-Vlach communities in Macedonia, which were the object of a Panhellenic propaganda most offensive to Rumanian nationalism.
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  • An irade of the sultan Abdul Hamid had in 1906 recognized the existence of the Kutzo-Vlachs as a religious body (millet), forming an integral part of the Rumanian Church.
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  • Rumanian orthography remained in a transitional state throughout the 19th century.
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  • Rumanian is highly inflected.
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  • The accentuation of Rumanian, though complex, is governed by certain broad principles, except in the case of neologisms, many of which have been borrowed from French and Italian without change of accent.
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  • The history of Rumanian literature can be divided into three distinct periods: the Slavonic, from the beginnings of Rumanian literature in the middle of the 16th century down to 1710; the Greek, from 1710-1830, corresponding with the era of Phanariote rule; and the modern period, from 1830 to the present.
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  • The change from Slavonic to Rumanian was very gradual.
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  • Even when the Rumanian language at last supplanted the Slavonic, it did not emancipate itself from the original; the new was merely a translation from the old, and at the beginning it was as literal as possible.
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  • We have therefore in the first period a medieval literature transplanted to Rumania and consisting of translations from the Slavonic. The reason of the change from Slavonic into Rumanian is to be sought in the influence the Reformation had among the Rumanian inhabitants of Transylvania.
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  • The Slavonic kingdoms of the south had lost their independence; they had ceased to produce anything worth having, whilst the Greeks brought with them the old literature from Byzantium and thus drove out the last remnants of Slavonic. They also treated Rumanian as an uncouth and barbarian language, and imposed upon the Church their own Greek language, Greek literature and Greek culture.
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  • This literature may be taken to represent the period of the Renaissance in the West; but when the yoke of the Phanariotes was shaken off, the link that connected Rumanian literature with Greek was also broken, and under modern influences began the romantic movement which has dominated Rumanian literature since 1830.
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  • Much of the Rumanian literature of the first two periods has been preserved only in MSS.; few of these have been investigated, and a still smaller number have been compared with their original.
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  • The Rumanian Academy keeps jealous watch over the treasures it has accumulated, and few have had access to the riches entombed in its archives; nor has any private or public collection been catalogued.
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  • An exhaustive history of Rumanian literature is, for the time being, a pious wish.
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  • The first impetus towards the printing of the Rumanian translations came from the princes and judges in Transylvania.
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  • It is under their orders and often at their expense that the first Slavonic printing-presses were established in places like Kronstadt (Brashov) Oratia, Sasz-Shebesh and Belgrad (Alba Julia, in Transylvania)where Slavonic and Rumanian books appeared.
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  • The very first book published in Rumanian is the Gospels printed in Kronstadt between 1560 and 1561.
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  • An absolutely identical Slavonic text of the Gospels appeared in the same year, or one year earlier, which no doubt was the original for the Rumanian translation.
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  • Following up the list of publications of the books of the Bible in chronological order, we find Diakonus Koresi immediately afterwards - the date has not yet been definitely ascertained - printing The a Rumanian translation of the Acts of the Apostles; in 1 577 he printed at Sasz-Shebesh a Psalter in both Slavonic and Rumanian; the Rumanian follows thee Slavonic verse for verse.
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  • The Slavonic language still reigned supreme in the Church; yet once the example had been set in Transylvania, and the influence of the Slavonic nations had begun to slacken, it was inevitable that the Rumanian language should sooner or later come to its own.
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  • It was in Transylvania that the first complete Rumanian translation of the New Testament appeared (Belgrad, 1648).
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  • Upon this version, no doubt, are based the editions of Iordache Cantacuzene(Bucharest, 1682), and that of §erban Greceanu (1693), in which for the first time the Greek text is printed side by side with the Rumanian; and the edition of Anthim the Iberian (1703).
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  • This may be considered as the supreme monument of Rumanian literature in Walachia in the 17th century.
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  • No other Rumanian translation approaches it in style and diction, although the authors, as they own, utilized the older translations, and for the New Testament and the Psalter they utilized Sylvestre's work.
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  • This is the first example of rhymed psalms in Rumanian, the author following the Polish rhymed version of Ian Kohanowski.
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  • The Rumanian language was not yet introduced into the Church.
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  • This Molitavnic (prayer-book) has been the basis of all subsequent editions of the Rumanian Prayer-book.
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  • Passing over the numerous editions of the Akathist and Katavasiar, some partly in Rumanian, we may mention the Ceasoslov (Book of Hours), said to have been printed for the first time in Transylvania in 1696, but certainly printed or reprinted by the metropolitan Anthim (Tirgovishtea, 1715).
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  • In 1694 Alexander Dascalul translated, and the bishops Mitrofan of Buseu and Kesarie of Ramnicu Valcea printed (among other church books) the twelve volumes of the Mineu in Slavonic with Rumanian rubrics, and short lives of the saints, as well as the Triod and the Anthologion.
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  • It was held in 1642 under the presidency of Peter of Mogila, and a formulary of the Orthodox creed was drawn up. An answer to the Lutheran Catechism of Heidelberg (translated into Rumanian and printed at Fogaras in 1648) was also prepared by Bishop Varlaam.
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  • Greceanu translated the formulary from Greek into Rumanian under the title Pravoslavnica mcirturisire (Bucharest, 1692).
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  • In 1640 there appeared in Govora the first canonical law-book, which was at the same time the first Rumanian book printed in Walachia.
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  • Ancient Rumanian historiography is thus difficult to unravel.
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  • Cantemir wrote the original in Latin and translated it into Rumanian in 1710.
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  • The few who had taken the trouble to study Rumanian literature paid not the slightest attention to the vast MS. material accumulated during the years of the Phanariote dominion, and out of sheer ignorance and political bias condemned this period as sterile.
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  • In Transylvania one section of the Rumanian population had accepted the spiritual rule of the pope; they became now Greek-Catholic, instead of Greek Orthodox.
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  • Thus a great change was wrought towards the end of the 18th and in the first half of the 10th century in the whole current of Rumanian literature.
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  • But the Latin or Transylvanian movement wrought great havoc in Rumanian literature and caused the greatest confusion in the language.
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  • By the end of the 17th century Rumanian had become the authorized language of the Church, and the Rumanian translation of the Gospels (printed 1693) had become the Authorized, Version.
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  • Slavonic having entirely disappeared from the sources of literature, writers and translators turned to Greek originals and for more than a century were busy translating into Rumanian the most important works of the older Fathers of the Church.
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  • The great polemical work of Simeon of Thessalonica, the Greek original of which was published by Dositheiu (Jassy, 1683), had been translated into Rumanian long before it was printed (Bucharest, 1756).
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  • All these translations are written in good Rumanian.
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  • The " United " fared better, and many a gifted young Rumanian was sent to Rome and helped from Vienna to obtain a serious education and occasionally also temporal promotion.
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  • After 1727 Rumanian was recognized as the language of the law-courts, and through the annexation of Bukovina by Austria (1774) and of Bessarabia by Russia (1812), codes for the civil and political administration of those provinces were drawn up in Rumanian, either in accordance with the established law of the land or in consonance with the laws of Austria and Russia.
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  • The Walachian civil laws and local usages were collected and arranged under the direction of Prince Ypsilanti (1780) in Greek and Rumanian; and under Prince Caragea another code was published (1817), which remained in force until 1832, when the " Organic Law " changed the whole trend of legislation.
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  • The last and probably the best writer of Rumanian history in the Phanariote period is Neculcea.
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  • The historians of the time under pressure of political exigencies did not scruple to invent treaties between the Porte and the Rumanian principalities.
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  • It was towards the end of /magin- thei 8th century that Rumanian literature began to emanci pate itself, very slowly of course, and to start on a career o f Litera- its own in poetry and belles lettres.
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  • The Odyssey and Iliad were then translated into prose, and the Arabian Nights, after undergoing an extraordinary change in Italian and modern Greek, appear in Rumanian literature at the middle of the 18th century under the name of Halima.
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  • The Glykis, a Greek printing firm in Venice, published many popular books in Rumanian which found their way into the principalities.
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  • Most of the writings of Florian, Marmontel, Le Sage, Montesquieu and others were rapidly translated into Rumanian.
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  • A certain Aristia, of Greek origin, but soon acclimatized to his surroundings as teacher at the high school in Bucharest, was the first to adapt foreign dramas for the Rumanian stage.
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  • These were first performed in Greek and afterwards translated into Rumanian.
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  • The plays produced on the Rumanian stage included most of the dramas of Moliere, some of Corneille, Kotzebue and Metastasio, whose Achille in Schiro was the first drama translated into Rumanian (by Iordache Slatineau, printed at *ibiu in 1797).
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  • Those who kept in touch with the old literature - men such as Beldiman, Marcovici and Negrutin - were able even in their metrical translations to do justice to the originals and at the same time not to distort the character of the Rumanian language.
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  • In Walachia .a certain Ion Budai Deleanu, a man of great learning, author of a hitherto unpublished Rumanian dictionary of great value, wrote a satirical epos in which gipsies play the chief part.
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  • Ianache Vacarescu, author of the first native Rumanian grammar on independent lines, was also the first who tried his hand at poetry, following Greek examples.
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  • One more poet, and a real one, is Vasile Carlova (1809-1831), whose Ruins of Tirgovishtec sufficed to place him among the foremost Rumanian.
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  • His peculiar strength lay in the historical ballad, which he was the first to introduce into Rumanian poetry, and in the vivid portraiture of Oriental scenery and emotions.
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  • Like *erbanescu, Vasile Alecsandri (1821-1890), the greatest of Rumanian lyrical poets (see Alecsandri),.
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  • He collected Rumanian popular songs and Alec- ballads (Dome, 1844) (Llicramioare, 1853).
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  • Cosbuc, who has risen more recently to fame, is the poet of the unfortunate Rumanian peasant, emancipated only in name and on paper, and a prey to greedy landowners and to a medieval administration.
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  • Somewhat different has been the development of the Rumanian prose writers.
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  • Too great influence was accorded to them, and the result was that for a long time scarcely a single Rumanian novelist or historian can be mentioned.
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  • He also created the Rumanian historical novel, by his Mihnea Voda (1858) and Doamna Kiajna (1860).
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  • Titu Maiorescu put a stop to the prevailing Latinism, and turned the current of Rumanian literature into a more healthy channel, by the publication of his Critice (1874).
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  • Alecsandri (1887), which besides their historical value have become a model of Rumanian prose.
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  • Curiously enough, there is not a single novel in the Rumanian literature with a sustained plot; none which presents a study of the development of human character amid the multifarious vicissitudes of life.
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  • The reason for this deficiency is perhaps the unsettled conditions of Rumanian life, and the lack of a profound and longestablished civilization; or it may be found in the unstable and fickle character of the people.
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  • Whatever the cause may be, while Rumanian poetry could well compare with that of any Western nation, in the domain of prose writing, and of novels in particular, one must look to the future to fill up the gap now existing.
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  • In Rumanian it rests on an older Greek-Slavonic text, and owes its great popularity to the wise and witty proverbs it contains.
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  • Besides his edition of the Rumanian Church service-books with musical notation, he published a series of tales, proverbs and songs either from older texts or from oral information; and he made the first collection' of popular songs, Spitalul amorului, " The Hospital of Love " (1850-53), with tunes either composed by himself or obtained from the gipsy musicians who alone performed them.
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  • The Fabule, si istorioare (2 vols., 1839-41) is a collection of short popular stories in rhyme; SezVoarea la tarci (1852-53) is a description of the Rumanian Spinnstube, for which the peasants gather in one of their houses on a winter's night, the girls and women spinning and working, the young men telling tales, proverbs, riddles, singing songs, &c. Pann also collected the jokes of the Turkish jester, Nasreddin, under the title of Neisdraveiniile lui Nastratin Hogea (1853), also in rhyme.
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  • Most of these texts date in their Rumanian form from the 16th and 17th centuries; the Sunday Epistle is well known in connexion with the Flagellants.
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  • By the treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the Russians rewarded their Rumanian allies with this land of mountains, fens and barren steppes, peopled by Turks, Bulgarians, Tatars, Jews and other aliens; while, to add to the indignation of Rumania, they annexed instead the fertile country of Bessarabia, largely inhabited by Rumans.
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  • For several centuries during the middle ages Rumanian immigrants formed so large a part of the population of Thessaly that that district was called by the Byzantine writers Great Wallachia (Meye:An BAaXia): the Jewish traveller, Benjamin of Tudela, who passed though the country in the latter half of the 12th century, describes them as then occupying it.
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  • The Rumanian women retain their native costume, and are further distinguished by the wooden cradles, slung over the shoulders, in which they carry their infants; the Servian mothers prefer a canvas bag.
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  • From 1856 to 1858 he devoted his attention to the Rumanian nationality, and supported Alexander Cuza.
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  • From Silistria the river flows through Rumanian territory and after passing Cernavoda, where it is crossed by a modern railway bridge, it reaches (left bank) the important commercial ports of Braila and Galatz.
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  • It was also decided that the European commission should no longer exercise any effective control over that portion of the Kilia branch of which the two banks belonged to one of the riverain powers (Russia and Rumania), while as regards that portion of it which separated the two countries, control was to be exercised by the Russian and Rumanian delegates on the European commission.
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  • Here petroleum tanks have been constructed for the storage of Rumanian petroleum, the first consignment of which in 1898, conveyed in tank boats, took six weeks on the voyage up from Giurgevo.
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  • A less important society is the Rumanian State Navigation Company, possessing a large flotilla of tugs and barges, which run to Budapest, where they have established a combined service with the South Danube German Company for the transport of goods from Pest to Regensburg.
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  • Besides the university, founded by Prince Cuza in 1864, with faculties of literature, philosophy, law, science and medicine, there are a military academy and schools of art, music and commerce; a museum, a fine hall and a theatre; the state library, where the chief records of Rumanian history are preserved; an appeal court, a chamber of commerce and several banks.
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  • Television replays proved that no contact had been made, but the Rumanian's play acting conned the referee into a dismissal.
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  • These refugees bolstered the already substantial Rumanian population of the area.
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  • The suffix-article likewise appears in Rumanian and Bulgarian, but in no other Latin or Slavonic language; it is in each case a form of the demonstrative pronoun.
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  • But for some years the three rivals in Macedonia, to which a fourth, the Rumanian element, must be added, were in constant strife (see Macedonia).
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  • With every year of war the number of confiscations of property increased in the Yugoslav provinces, as in Bohemia and Transylvania - vengeance upon the families at home being widely used in order to deter Slav, Italian or Rumanian prisoners from enlisting in the various volunteer corps in process of formation on the Russian, Balkan and Italian fronts.
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  • The Rumanian folk-songs, sung and often improvised by the villagers, or by a wandering guitar-player (cobzar), are of exceptional interest and beauty (see Literature, below).
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  • The most prominent figure is that of the scholar and linguist Constantin Konaki (1777-1849), who might be termed the Rumanian Longfellow for the facility and felicity of his translations from Western poetry and for his short poems, easily set to music and very popular.
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  • On the 23rd of April Russia declared war against Turkey, and the grand duke Nicholas issued a proclamation to the Rumanian nation, announcing his intention of entering their territory in the hope of finding the same welcome as in former wars.
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