After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
In 1877 it was nearly destroyed by the Russian artillery stationed in the Rumanian town of Giurgevo, on the opposite bank of the Danube.
The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.
Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits.
Murgoci the Rumanian amber is true succinite.
CURTEA DE ARGESH (Rumanian, Curtea de Arges; also written Curtea d'Argesh, Curtea d'Ardges, Argish and Ardjish), the capital of the department of Argesh, Rumania; situated on the right bank of the river Argesh, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians; and on the railway from Pitesci to the Rothenthurm Pass.
Its legends have inspired many Rumanian poets, among them the celebrated V.
This was the original of all the medieval forms of oath more judaico, which still prevailed in many European lands till the 19th century, and are even now maintained by some of the Rumanian courts.
SUCZAWA (Rumanian, Suceava), a town in Bukovina, Austria, 50 m.
Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language into the church as its official language.
Rumanian folksongs were Magyarized by George Ember, Julian;Grozescu and Joseph Vulcanu, under the title Roman nepdalok (Budapest, 1877).
On subjects of politics, amongst the more important works are the various monographs of Gustavus Beksics on the Dualism of AustriaHungary, on the " New Foundations of Magyar Politics " (A magyar politika uj alapjai, 1899), on the Rumanian question, &c.; the writings of Emericus Balint, Akos Beothy, Victor Concha (systematic politics), L.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
No orders were given for the evacuation of Slovakia; in Transylvania an impossible shaped line was drawn, such as left Cluj (Kolozsvar) and many pure Rumanian districts in Magyar hands; while the Rumanians were incensed by the assignment of Temesvar (Temisoara) and the whole Banat to Serbia.
12 1918 the Serbs were allowed to occupy Temesvar and most of the Banat, the east of which is overwhelmingly Rumanian and which was claimed in its entirety by Rumania, in right of her treaty of Aug.
The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
This has the disadvantage that while the Serbs are stronger than any other single race in the two towns, their cession involved the loss of many purely Rumanian villages by Rumania, and also her loss of the important railway line connecting Temesvar southward with the Danube.
TIRGU OCNA (Rumanian also Targul Ocna), a town of Rumania, on the left bank of the river Trotosh, an affluent of the Sereth, and on a branch railway which crosses the Ghimesh Pass into Transylvania.
The bibliography of Voltaire is a very large subject, and it has been the special occupation of a Rumanian diplomatist of much erudition and judgment, Georges Bengesco, Bibliographic de Voltaire (4 vols., Paris, 1882-90).
This work was written in Egypt, according to James, and survives also in Slavonic, Rumanian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.
It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary, two training schools for teachers - one Hungarian, and the other Rumanian - and a conservatoire for music. The town played an important part in the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, and possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
Of the Rumanian Gospels, once owned by this Petru Cercel, and containing his autograph signature.
Gaster at the expense of the Rumanian government.
Most of the European races with which the Turks came into close contact during the 15th and 6th centuries seem to have adopted it as a loan-word, and it appears in Magyar as hajdu (plural hajduk), in Serbo-Croatian, Rumanian, Polish and Cech as hajduk, in Bulgarian as hajdutin and in Greek as xaw-rouTns.
Of the three Latin races, Italian, Ladin and Rumanian, national fragments were to be found in Austria.
23 30,000 Rumanian peasants of the Bukovina got up a great manifesto in favour of the emperor and the empire, and on Dec. 1 patriotic protestations from the Rumanian Club followed.
The Rumanian Club made a similar declaration on Jan.
In addition to numerous original works she put into literary form many of the legends current among the Rumanian peasantry.
"Carmen Sylva" wrote with facility in German, Rumanian, French and English.
Cuvinte Sufletesci, religious meditations in Rumanian (Bucharest, 1888), was also translated into German (Bonn, 1890), under the name of Seelen-Gespreiche.
Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
A steam ferry connects it with Calafat, on the Rumanian bank of the Danube, and there is a branch railway to Mezdra, on the main line Sofia-Plevna.
Before the secularization of the monastic lands in 1864, it was one of the richest and most important of the Rumanian monasteries.
The Black Sea squadron of the Rumanian fleet is stationed here.
The large skete of St Andrew and some others belong to the Russians; there are also Rumanian and Georgian sketae.
Three main thoroughfares, the Plevna, Lipscani, and Vacaresci, skirt the left bank of the river; the Elizabeth Boulevard, and the Calea Victories, or " Avenue of Victory," which commemorates the Rumanian success at Plevna, in 1877, radiate east and north, respectively, from the Lipscani, and meet a broad road which surrounds all sides of Bucharest, except the north-west.
BRAILA (in Rumanian Braila, formerly Ibraila), the capital of the department of Braila, Rumania; situated amid flat and dreary country on the left bank of the river Danube, about zoo m.
The Rumanian franc, or leu (" lion"), so called from the image it bore, came likewise from Craiova.
Hermannstadt, Rumanian Sibiu), a town of Hungary, in Transylvania, the capital of the county of Sieben, 122 M.
It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox (Rumanian) archbishop, and of the superintendent of the Protestants for the Transylvanian circle.
Even with the addition of the " Latin " (Rumanian and Italian) seats the " German-Latin block " amounted only to 257.
Rumanians Rumanian Club Jews Zionists .
On the Bulgarian shore, linking the Rumanian railway system to the chief Bulgarian line north of the Balkans (Rustchuk-Varna).
Erdely; Rumanian, Ardeal), a former principality (Grossfilrstentum) occupying the extreme eastern portion of the kingdom of Hungary.
From Hungary; the Hungarian and Rumanian name both mean " forest land."
The efforts of the Rumanian inhabitants to secure recognition as a fourth "nation," and the opposition of the non-Magyar population to a closer union with Hungary, led to troubles early in the 19th century, culminating in 1848.
There are references in Rumanian, Slavonic, Armenian, Arabic and Syriac literature to a legend, of which the hero is Ahikar (for Armenian, Arabic and Syriac, see The Story of Ahikar, F.
Finally, beyond the Balkans lies the great Rumanian depression, occupied chiefly by undisturbed Cretaceous and Tertiary strata.
Only a portion of the widely-spread Ruman or Vlach race, which extends over a great part of Transylvania, south Hungary and Bessarabia, as well as the Rumanian kingdom, falls within the limits of the Peninsula.
The Servian, Bulgarian and Rumanian languages have borrowed largely from the Turkish in their vocabularies, but not in their structural forms, and have adopted many words from the Greek.
Certain remarkable analogies between Albanian and the other languages of the Peninsula, especially Bulgarian and Rumanian, have been supposed to point to the influence exercised by the primitive speech upon the idioms of the immigrant races.
The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaelsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.
His rest lasted less than two days; for when the imminence of the enemy attack was confirmed by two deserting enemy officers, of Rumanian nationality, he returned to resume his command, reaching Cormons late on the night of Oct.
Armenian, Graeco-Rumanian and Graeco-Ruthenian respectively; the rest are subject to the patriarchates, viz.
3 Graeco-Rumanian and 6 Graeco-Ruthenian; the rest are subject to the patriarchates, viz.
(b) Rumanian Church.
The first alone had the right to cover their heads and wore a felt hat (hence tarabostesei= 7rLX04 opoc, pileati); they formed a privileged class, and were the predecessors of the Rumanian boyars.
With the religion the Dacians also adopted the language of the conquerors, and modern Rumanian is full of Latin words easily recognizable.
STURDZA, or Sturza, the name of an ancient Rumanian family, of unknown origin, which probably came from Trebizond and settled in Moldavia.
He was a candidate for the Moldavian throne in 1859, and subsequently a prominent member of the Russophil party in the Rumanian parliament.
Immediately after the Greek revolution, Prince John Sturdza took an active part in subduing the roving bands of Greek Hetairists in Moldavia; he transformed the Greek elementary schools into Rumanian schools and laid the foundation for that scientific national development which Prince Michael Sturdza continued after 1834.