Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol.
Schoene, De rerum Alexandri Magni scriptorum imprimis Arriani Plutarchi fontibus (1870); Fraenkel, Die Geschichtschreiber Alex.
368-560; the Vita Sanctae Brigittae, edited by C. Annerstedt in Scriptores rerum Suedicarum medii aevi, iii.
Budapest, 1890); Antonio Bonfini, Rerum hungaricarum decades (7th ed., Leipzig, 1771); Aeneas Sylvius, Opera (Frankfort, 1707); The Correspondence of King Matthias (Hung.
Muratoris great collection, the Rerum Italicarum 5cr iptores in combination with his Dissertationes, the chronicles and other historical material published by the Archjvjo Storjco Italiano, and the woiks of detached annalists of whom the \Tjllanj are the most notable, take first rank.
SEMPRONIUS ASELLIO (about 1 00 B.C.), military tribune of Scipio Africanus at the siege of Numantia, composed Rerum Gestarum Libri in at least fourteen books.
(St Petersburg, 1818); autobiography of Herberstein in Fontes rerum Austriacarum, part i.
He wrote (1) Antapodoseos, seu rerum per Europem gestarum, Libri VI, an historical narrative, relating to the events from 887 to 949, compiled with the object of avenging himself upon Berengar and Willa his queen; (2) Historia Ottonis, a work of greater impartiality and merit, unfortunately covering only the years from 960 to 964; and (3) the Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (968-969).
In connexion with the Monumenta Pertz also began the publication of a selection of sources in octavo form, the Scriptores rerum germanicarum in usum scholarum; among his other literary labours may be mentioned an edition of the Gesammelte Werke of Leibnitz, and a life of Stein.
Strehlke, Tabulae Ordinis Teutonici (Berlin, 1869), and in Scriptores rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1870).
and form the groundwork of the well-known Scriptores rerum Suecicarum medii aevi.
C.) and the Rerum Rusticarum Libri of Varro.
See Scriptores rerum Alexandri Magni (by C. W.
The earliest list of British birds seems to be that in the Pinax Rerum Naturalium of Christopher Merrett, published in 1667.
He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at least twice on political business, and with the history of the Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books, with a fragment of a twentythird) - the Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum.
Westermann gave a revised edition of it in his IlapaSoEoyp6450c (Scriptores rerum mirabilium Graeci), 1839.
Nullum nisi eos invadentem vel resistentem pro suarum rerum tuitione occiderunt.
His " Histories " are published in Rerum brit.
He was the author of Collectanea rerum memorabilium, a description of curiosities in a chorographical framework.
A passage in De rerum natura (vi.
KO,unros); the comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople b K6pns TWV aaKpt v XapyLTUJP Wv and the comes rerum privatarum 1 The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a foreign language.
Basil, L'Empire du Bresil (Paris, 1862); Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia.
The universals, therefore, have no existence, as universals, in rerum natura; and Thomas endorses, in this sense, the polemic of Aristotle against Plato's hypostatized abstractions.
The earliest important collection of sources of Hungarian history was Johann Georg Schrandtner's Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum (4th ed., Vienna, 1766-1768).
In 1849 Stephen Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), better known as a botanist than as a historian, published a collection of documents, Rerum hungaricarum monumenta Arpadiana.
319); and the Chronicon Rerum Hungaricarum of John Thuroczi.
Foremost amongst the Italians was Antonio Bonfini, whose work, Rerum Hungaricarum Decades IV., comprising Hungarian history from the earliest times to the death of King Matthias, was published with a continuation by Sambucus (Basel, 1568).
by Fougerolles, 1597), and the Colloquium Heptaplomeres de abditis rerum sublimium arcanis, written in 1588, published first by Guhrauer (1841), and in a complete form by L.
Pertz in the Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, Band xix., Hanover, 1866) for the latter part of the reign.
A single mention of his poem, the De rerum natura (which from the condition in which it has reached us may be assumed to have been published posthumously) in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, written early in S4 B.C., confirms the date given by Donatus as that of the poet's death.
The prosaic title De Rerum Natura, a translation of the Gr.
All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.
See also John of Viktring (Joannes Victoriensis) in Fontes rerum Germanicarum, ed.
Scheppig, De Posidonio rerum gentium terrarum scriptore (Berlin, 1869); R.
He was the author of several works, the principal of which is entitled Rerum Hispanorum Romanorum imperatorum, summorum pontificum, nec non regum Francorum anacephaleosis.
This is a history of Spain from the earliest times down to 1456, and was printed at Granada in 1545, and also in the Rerum Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot, by R.
Of singular interest also is his De exordiis et incrementis rerum ecclesiasticarum, written between 840 and 842 and dedicated to Regenbert the librarian.
It is not clear, however, whether his invention was a camera obscura or a show box, but in a fragment of an anonymous biography of him, published in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (xxv.
Spalatin in the Scriptores rerum Germanicarum praecipue Saxonicarum, Band ii., edited by J.
Another collection made by Bongars is the Rerum Hungaricarum scriptores varii (Frankfort, 1600).
For the history of the electorate see the Scriptores rerum moguntiacarum, edited by G.
As early as 1721 he was seeking to lay the foundation of a scientific explanation of the universe, when he published his Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium, and had already written his Principia in its first form.
C. Beccari in Rerum aethiopicarum scriptores occidentales inediti a saeculo XVI.
While we recognize in the De Rerum Natura some of the most powerful poetry in any language and feel that few poets have penetrated with such passionate sincerity and courage into the secret of nature and some of the deeper truths of human life, we must acknowledge that, as compared with the great didactic poem of Virgil, it is crude and unformed in artistic design, and often rough and unequal in artistic execution.
Of his subsequent works the principal are Rerum Germanicarum Libri III.
The Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum, tome iv., edited by Ph.
De rerum natura, i.
"Suprematum illi tribuo qui non tantum domi subditos manu militari regit, sed et qui exercitum extra fines ducere et armis, foederibus, legationibus, ac caeteris juris gentium functionibus aliquid momenti ad rerum Europae generalium summam conferre potest" (Leibnitz, Opera, 4.333).
Asser's work, Annales rerum gestarum Alfredi magni, was written about 893, and consists of a chronicle of English history from 849 to 887, and an account of Alfred's life, largely drawn from personal knowledge, down to 887.
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
To the same order belong Ludwik Finkel's Fontes rerum polonicarum (Lemberg, 1901, &c.), and the innumerable essays and articles in The Historical Quarterly Review of Poland (Pol., Lemberg, 1887, &c.).
Lucretius Carus de Rerum Natura.
He wrote histories of Greece and of Philip, and an epic on Alexander (fragments in Miller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni).
appeared at Stockholm in 1615), the best at Hanover, 1846 (by Lappenberg, in Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum; reissued by L.
Shortly before 1196 he began his Historia rerum Anglicarum.
For the history of Lusatia see the collections, Scriptores rerum Lusaticarum antiqui et recentiores, edited by C. G.
Hoffmann (4 vols., Leipzig and Bautzen, 1719); and Scriptores rerum Lusaticarum (4 vols., Gorlitz, 1839-1870).
27-29; Anna Comnena's Life; see also Du Cange, Familiae Byzantinae; Friedrich Wilken, Rerum ab Alexio I., Joanne, Manuele et Alexio II.
In another work, De naturis rerum, lib.
Scriptores rerum langobardicarum (Hanover, 1878).
The fragments, some thirty in number, chiefly preserved in Aelian and Strabo, will be found in C. Miiller's Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni (in the Didot Arrian, 1846); monographs by C. Raun, De Clitarcho Diodori, Curtii, Justini auctore (1868), and F.
His chief works were Philosophiae Triumphus (1573); Synopsis Metaphysicae Aristotelis (1596); De Rerum Aeternitate (1604); and a treatise written in criticism of Caesalpinus entitled Caesae Alpes (1597).
But the greatest of its Roman names was Lucretius, whose De rerum natura embodies the main teaching of Epicurus with great exactness, and with a beauty which the subject seemed scarcely to allow.
Eccard (Leipzig, 1723) and the Scriptores rerum Germanicarum of J.
These are the Fontes rerum Germanicarurn, edited by J.
Much has also been done in Prussia, in Brandenburg, in Bavaria, in Hanover, in Wurttemberg and in Baden, and collections of authorities have been made by competent scholars, of which the Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen und angrenzender Gebiete (Halle, 1870, f 01.), which extends to forty volumes, the smaller Scrip/ores rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1874), and the seventy-seven volumes of the Publikationen aus den koniglichen preussischen Slaatsarchiven, veranlasst und unterstutzt durch die konigliche Archivverwaltung (Leipzig, 1878, fol.), may be cited as examples.
See Sigismund Herberstain, Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (Vienna, 1 549); P. A.
folio by Hieronymus Pez (Leipzig, 1721-1725) under the title Scriptores rerum Austriacarum veteres et genuini, of which a new edition was printed at Regensburg in 1745, and again, under the title of Rerum Austriacarum scriptores, by A.
Of these the most notable is the Fontes rerum Austriacarum, published under the auspices of the Historical Commission of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Vienna; the series, of which the first volume was published in 1855, is divided into two parts: (i.) Scriptores, of which the 9th vol.
1 Petri Ansolini de Rbulo de rebus Siculis carmen (republished in the new edition of Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, by E.
The spelling "gadwall" seems to be first found in Willughby in 1676, and has been generally adopted by later writers; but Merrett, in 1667, has "gaddel" (Pinax rerum naturalium Britannicarum, p. 180), saying that it was so called by bird-dealers.
He began the great collection of Scriptores rerum Danicarum medii aevi (9 vols., Copenhagen, 1772-1878).
He devoted, however, to this period three folio volumes (Gesta Francorum seu rerum francicarum tomi tres, 1646-1658), which form a critical commentary of much value, and in many points new, on the chroniclers of the Merovingian age.
The principal remaining literature of the subject will be found in the following books and treatises - Johann Neudorfer, Schreib-und Rechenmeister zu Nurnberg, Nachrichten fiber Kanstlern und Werkleuten daselbst (Nuremberg, 1547); republished in the Vienna Quellenschrift (1875); C. Scheurl, Vita Antonii Kressen (1515, reprinted in the collection of Pirkheimer's works, Frankfort, 1610); Wimpheling, Epitome rerum Germanicarum, ch.
In the same year, 1521, he published his Loci communes rerum theologicarum, the first systematized presentation of the reformed theology.
(Wien, 1883), (Fontes rerum Austr.
Very valuable also is the Fontes rerum Germanicarum (Stuttgart, 1843-1868), a collection of original authorities for German history during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Pietro, also a senator, lived in the 16th century, and wrote on Historia rerum Venetarum in continuation of that of Bernardo.
In 1563, or perhaps two years later, appeared his great work De Rerum Natura, which was followed by a large number of scientific and philosophical works of subsidiary importance.
He was much 1 Orator, § 212 " cursum contentiones magis requirunt, expositiones rerum tarditatem."
(1604), which contained the old German tales of Kunig Tyrol von Schotten, the Winsbeke and the Winsbekin; Suevicarum rerum scriptores (Frankfort, 1605, new edition, 1727); Rerum Alamannicarum scriptores (Frankfort, 1606, new edition by Senckenburg, 1730); Constitutiones imperiales (Frankfort, 1607-1613, 4 vols.); Mon, archia s.
Griindung Berns, 1191 (Bern, 1891); Fontes Rerum Bernensium (to 1378), (9 vols., Bern, 1883-1908); K.
Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892); Otto Morena of Lodi, Historia rerum Laudensium, continued by his son, Acerbus, also in the Monumenta; Ansbert, Historia de expeditione Friderici, 1187-1196, published in the Fontes rerum Austriacarum.
The principal lives of the German saints are published in the Monumenta Germaniae, and a special section of the Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum is devoted to the lives of the saints.
Deserving of attention are also the Cogitationes de Natura Rerum, probably written early, perhaps in 1605, and the treatise on the theory of the tides, De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris, written probably about 1616.
The first part of this history dealing with the reign down to 1588 was published in 1615 under the title Annales rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante Elizabetha.
Duchesne in the Historiae Normannorum scriptores (Paris, 1619); and it is also found in the Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris of J.
Glastoniensis ecclesiae," in Rerum Anglicarum script.
Discontented with this narrow course of study, he happened to read the De Rerum Natura of Bernardino Telesio, and was delighted with its freedom of speech and its appeal to nature s rather than to authority.
The most important are De sensu rerum (1620); Realis philosophiae epilogisticae partes IV.
Of these the first twenty-five were entitled the Antiquities of Human Things (Antiquitates Rerum Humanarum), while the remaining sixteen were designated the Antiquities of Things Divine (Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum).
These are arranged, professedly on the basis of the aphorism of Augustine, Lombard's favourite authority, that "omnis doctrina vel rerum est vel signorum," into four books, of which the first treats of God, the second of the creature, the third of the incarnation, the work of redemption, and the virtues, and the fourth of the seven sacraments and eschatology.
The valuable collection of historical documents entitled Fontes Rerum Bohemicarum, published at Prague in the latter part of the 19th century, has superseded earlier ones such as Freherus (Marquard Freher), Rerum Bohemicarum Antiqui Scriptores.
(1560); Poetarum veterum ecclesiasticorum opera Christiana (1562); De Re Poetica libri septem (1565); Rerum Misnicarum libri septem (1569); (posthumous) Originu7n illustrissimae stirpis Saxonicae libri septem (1597); Rerum Germaniae magnae et Saxoniae universae memorab'lium mirabiliumque volumina duo (1609).
It was printed by Wendelin Richelius with the title of Commentarii rerum in ecclesia gestarum (Strasburg, 1554).
The title is Rerum in ecclesia gestarum.
On historical subjects the most considerable are Rerum memorandarum libri, a miscellany from a student's commonplace-book, and De viris illustribus, an epitome of the biographies of Roman worthies.
He finds fault with those who are non exornatores rerum sed tantum narratores.
His vast collection of sources (Rerum Italicarum scriptores), prepared amid every discouragement, remains to-day the national monument of Italian history; and it is but one of his collections.
In the splendid balance of his nature the Virgilian longing, rerum cognoscere causas, could never indeed wholly silence the call to exercise his active powers.
Ravaisson, Speusippi de primis rerum principiis placita (Paris, 1838); Chr.
Various translations of parts of it exist, the earliest being a Latin rendering of the section relating to the Arabian conquests in Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic professor at Palermo, in 1610 (preserved in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol.
The Historia Anglorum was first printed in Savile, Rerum Anglicarum scriptores post Bedam (London, 1596).
Other important original documents, or works containing such documents, are Verantius's 16th-century De situ Transylvaniae, Moldaviae, et Transalpinae, in Kovachich's Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum minores (Budapest, 1798); G.
See Rerum Hungaricarum libri (vol.
This history (Rerum Gestarum Libri XXXI.) was originally in thirty-one books; of these the first thirteen are lost, the eighteen which remain cover the period from 353 to 378.
Muratori, Rerum ital.
Neither is the philosopher of Lille the author of a Memoriale rerum difficilium, published under his name; and it is exceedingly doubtful whether the Dicta Alani de lapide philosophico really issued from his pen.
Besides the Speculum Richard also wrote, according to the statement of William of Woodford in his Answer to Wycliffe (Edward Brown, Fasciculus Rerum expetendarum, p. 193), a treatise De Officiis; and there was formerly in the cathedral library at Peterborough another tractate from his pen, entitled Super Symbolum.
Savage men are like ourselves in curiosity and anxiety causas cognoscere rerum, but with our curiosity they do not possess our powers of attention.
He also wrote Monalosphaerium, sive astrolabii genus, generalis horarii structura et usus (1526); De proportionibus (1528); De evacuandi ratione (1545); De abditis rerum causis (1548); and Medicina ad Henricum II.
Philologie ii, p. 623 ff.); Ubbo Emmius, Rerum Frisicarum historic (Leiden, 1616); Pirius Winsemius, Chronique van Vriesland (Franoker, 1822); C. Scotanus, Beschryvinge end Chronyck van des Heerlickheydt van Frieslandt (1655); Groot Placaat en Charter-boek van Friesland (ed.
Muller, Historicorum Graecorum Fragmenta; Schone, De Rerum Alexandri Magni Scriptoribus (1870).
We cannot certainly assign to him more than four or five (Deus Creator Omnium, Aeterne rerum conditor, Jam surgit hora tertia, and the Christmas hymn Veni redemptor gentium) of those that have come down to us.
Especially interesting is the De natura rerum ad Sisebutum 1 With Isidore of Alexandria has been confused an Isidore of Gaza, mentioned by Photius.
Belus, Rerum his panicarum scriptores aliquot in bibliotheca Rob erti Beli 3 vols.
Krusch, Scri p tores rerum Merovingicarum, iii.
Brown's Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (1690).
Bonfini, Rerum ungaricarum libri xlv, editio septima (Leipzig, 1771).
The Rerum Italicarum scriptores, edited by L.
EDICT OF DIOCLETIAN (De pretiis rerum venalium), an imperial edict promulgated in A.D.
The Roman poet Lucretius (De Rerum Natura) was an eloquent exponent of this theory, but throughout the middle ages, indeed until the 17th century, it was eclipsed by the prestige of Aristotle.
324-361), printed at the end of the Didot edition of Arrian, and the Epitome Rerum Gestarum Alexandri magni, an abridgment made in the 4th or 5th century of a lost Latin work of uncertain date, combining history with elements taken from the Romance (edited by O.
Napier deliberately set himself to abbreviate multiplications and divisions - operations of so fundamental a character that it might well have been thought that they were in rerum natura incapable of abbreviation; and he succeeded in devising, by the help of arithmetic and geometry alone, the one 1 The title runs as follows: Arithmetica Logarithmica, sive Logarithmorum chiliades triginta....
525; by Karl Binding in the Fontes rerum Bernensium (vol.
In later ones, working on the principle that the Christian Church should superintend and direct every form of civil life, he dealt with the Christian constitution of states (Immortale Dei, ist November 1885), with human liberty (Libertas, 10th June 1888), and with the condition of the working classes (Rerum novarum, 15th May 1891).
And in January 1902, reversing the policy which had its inception in the encyclical, Rerum novarum, of 1891, and had further been developed ten years later in a letter to the Italian bishops entitled Graves de communi, the "Sacred Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs" issued instructions concerning "Christian Democracy in Italy," directing that the popular Christian movement, which embraced in its programme a number of social reforms, such as factory laws for children, old-age pensions, a minimum wage in agricultural industries, an eight-hours' day, the revival of trade gilds, and the encouragement of Sunday rest, should divert its attention from all such things as savoured of novelty and devote its energies to the restoration of the temporal power.
In a grave in the apse was found a large fragment of an inscription, composed by Pope Damasus, but set up by his successor Siricius, which, from the note-book of a Salzburg pilgrim of the 8th century, can be completed thus: - Militiae nomen dederant saevum Officium pariter spectantes juss Praeceptis pulsante metu servi Mira fides rerum subito posue Conversi fugiunt ducis impia castr Projiciunt clypeos faleras tel Confessi gaudent Christi portar Credite per Damasum possit quid Nereus (see Rom.
Moreover, Erigena again and again declares that dialectic has to do with the stadia of a real or divine classification: " Intelligitur quod ars ilia, quae dividit genera in species et species in genera resolvit, quae X dicitur, non ab humanis machinationibus sit facta, sed in natura rerum ab auctore omnium artium, quae verae artes sunt, condita et a sapientibus inventa " (De divisione naturae, iv.
For in his De naturis rerum and De utensilibus (the former of which, at any rate, had become well known at the end of the 12th century, and was probably written about 1180) Neckam has preserved to us the earliest European notices of the magnet as a guide to seamen - outside China, indeed, these seem to be the earliest notices of this mystery of nature that have survived in any country or civilization.
The more important of the general chronicles are: the Gesta Henrici Secundi, ascribed to Benedict of Peterborough (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1867); the Chronica of Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Series, 4 vols., 1868-71); the Chronica of Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Series, 1879); the Imagines Historiarum of Ralph of Diceto (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1876); the Historia Rerum Anglicarum of William of Newburgh (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, '' &c., Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1884-85); the De rebus gestis Ricardi Primi of Richard of Devizes (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, &c., vol.
Teulet, Einhardi ornnia quae extant opera (Paris, 1840-1843), with a French translation; P. Jaffe, in the Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum, Band iv.
Sir Matthew Hale (1609-1676) tells us that if anything is done to "a woman quick or great with child, to make an abortion, or whereby the child within her is killed, it is not murder or manslaughter by the law of England, because it is not yet in rerum natura."
The Scriptores are divided into A uctores antiquissimi, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum, Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum, Libelli de lite imperatorum et pontificum, Gesta pontificum Romanorum and Deutsche Chroniken, or Scriptores qui vernacula lingua usi sunt.
The preface treats of Greek sciences, geometry, the discovery of specific gravity by Archimedes, and other discoveries of the Greeks, and of Romans of his time who have vied with the Greeks -- Lucretius in his poem De Rerum Natura, Cicero in rhetoric, and Varro in philology, as shown by his De Lingua Latina.
He had an extraordinary memory and a thorough knowledge of the classics, and to him we owe editions of several of the Greek historians, with excellent Latin translations, the only fault found with which is that they are too elegant: Polybii, Diodori Siculi, Nicolai Damasceni, Dionysii Halicarnassii, Appiani et Joannis Antiocheni excerpta (1634; Henri de Valois used for this edition a manuscript coming from Cyprus, which had been acquired by Peiresc); Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri 18 (1636); Eusebii ecclesiastica historia, et vita imperatoris Constantini, graece et latine (1659); Socratis, Sozomeni, Theodoreti et Evagrii Historia ecclesiastica (1668-1673).
Beside the De Rerum Natura, he wrote De Somno, De his quae in aere fiunt, De Mari, De Conietis et Circulo Lacteo, De usu respirationis, &c.
and iv.; Ynglinga Saga, with the poem Ynglingatal contained in the Heimskringla; Olafs Sagan Tryggvasonar and Olafs Saga hins Helga, both contained in Heimskringla and in Fornmanna sogur; Saxo grammaticus, gesta Danorum; a collection of later Swedish Chronicles contained in Rerum suecicarum scriptores, vol.
- Caspar Barlaeus, Rerum per octennium in Brasilia et alibi nuper gestarum historia, sub praefectura illustrissimi comitis J.
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