Ratitae sentence example

ratitae
  • Such a pygostyle is absent in Archaeopteryx, Hesperornis, Tinami and Ratitae, but it occurs individually in old specimens of the ostrich and the kiwi.
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  • It is absent in the Ratitae, which from this feature have received their name, but considerable traces of a cartilaginous keel occur in the embryo of the ostrich, showing undeniably that the absence of a keel in the recent bird is not a primitive, fundamental feature.
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  • This condition occurs in the Ratitae as well as in the well-flying Platyrcecinae amongst parrots.
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  • It is absolutely certain that the wings of the Ratitae bear the strongest testimony that they are the descendants of typical flying birds.
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  • This primitive condition occurs only in the Odontornithes, Ratitae and Tinami; in all others this notch becomes converted into a foramen ischiadicum, through which pass the big stems of the ischiadic nerves and most of the bloodvessels of the hind-limb.
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  • The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.
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  • He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
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  • The syrinx or lower larynx is the most interesting and absolutely avine modification, although absent as a voice-producing organ (probably due to retrogression) in most Ratitae, storks, turkey buzzards (Cathartes) and Steganopodes.
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  • It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
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  • Provisionally this genus has been grouped with the Ratitae, which at any rate are a heterogenous assembly.
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  • Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.
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  • All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
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  • Of the Passeres the honeysuckers (Meliphagidae) are most characteristic, and, abounding in 1 The following old-fashioned rough computation may serve as an indication of the relative size of the orders and suborders of recent birds: Ratitae.
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  • The most extraordinary feature is unquestionably the former existence of the gigantic Dinornithes or moas and, another family of Ratitae, the weird-looking kiwis or Apteryges, which are totally unlike any other existing birds.
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  • We note the absence of Ratitae, Tinami, Cracidae, Rhamphastidae, and any of those gruiform genera which are so, characteristic of the continent.
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  • The HoLARCTIC Region, comprising North America and the extratropical mass of land of the Old World, may from an ornithological point of view be characterized by the Colymbi, Alcidae, Gallidae or Alectoropodous Galli, and the Oscines, which have here reached their highest development; while Ratitae, Tinami, Psittaci, and non-Oscine Passeres (with the exception of Tyrannidae extending into North America and Conurus carolinensis) are absent.
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  • To the Ratitae belong possibly also the imperfectly known Diatryma, Eocene of New Mexico, Gastornis and Dasornis, Eocene of Europe, Genyornis, Pleistocene of Australia.
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  • The main branches of the resultant " tree " may be rendered as follows: [[Coraciomorphae Odontolcae..Colymbo-+Pelargoalectoromorphae..Ratitae Morphae Morphae ' 'Neornithes]] The Odontolcae seem to be an early specialized offshoot of the Colymbo-Pelargomorphous brigade, while the Ratitae represent a number of side branches of early Alectoromorphae.
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  • The Ratitae branched off, probably during the Eocene period, from that still indifferent stock which gave rise to the Tinami+Galli+Gruiformes, when the members of this stock were still in possession of those archaic characters which distinguish Ratitae from Carinatae.
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  • It follows that new groups of Ratitae can no longer be developed since there are no Carinatae living which still retain so many low characters, e.g.
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  • The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
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  • Instead of recognizing, as before, a subclass in the Ratitae of Merrem, Nitzsch now reduced them to the rank of an order under the name " Platysternae," placing them between the " Gallinaceae " and " Grallae," though admitting that in their pterylosis they differ from all other birds, in ways that he is at great pains to describe, in each of the four genera examined by him - Struthio, Rhea, Dromaeus and Casuarius.
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  • Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.
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  • The Ratitae comprehend the struthious birds, which differ from all others now extant in the combination of several peculiarities, some of which have been mentioned in the preceding pages.
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  • The Dromaeognathae resemble the Ratitae, and especially the genus Dromaeus, in their palatal structure, and are composed of the Tinamous (q.v.).
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  • Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.
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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
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  • The separation of the Ratitae from the other birds, and their seemingly fundamental differences, notably the absence of the keel and of the power of flight, induced certain authors to go so far as to derive the Ratitae from the Dinosaurian reptiles, whilst Archaeopteryx (q.v.) and the Carinatae were supposed to have sprung from some Pterosaurian or similar reptilian stock.
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  • It had already been understood that the various genera of the Ratitae were the representatives of so many different groups, each of which was at least equivalent to ordinal rank, and that therefore, if the Ratitae were still to be considered a natural group, this common ancestry must be referred to a remote geological epoch.
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  • At any rate we begin to see that some of the Ratitae, namely the Rheidae, may possibly be an early and then much modified offshoot of such of the Carinatae as are now represented by the Crypturi, whilst in another part of the world, and at a much later time, kiwis and moas have sprung from a somewhat more Gallilorm stock, which points to a descent from a still undivided GalliformTinamiform mass.
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  • All the recent Ratitae still possess a considerable number of rather primitive characters, e.g.
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  • From such a rudis indiges-, taque moles, after it had attained an almost world-wide distribution, have arisen the various Ratitae, independently at various epochs and in various countries.
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  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
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  • Consequently we are justified in retaining "Ratitae" in our classification, although they are a heterogeneous, not strictly monophyletic, assembly.
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  • The hind limbs are very strong; the massive femur has a large pneumatic foramen; the tibia has a bony bridge on the anterior surface of the lower portion, a character in which the moas agree only with Apteryx amongst the other Ratitae.
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  • The feathers have a large after-shaft which is of the size of the other half, likewise in agreement with the Australian Ratitae, while in the others, including the kiwis, the after-shaft is absent.
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  • Another important point, in which the moas agree with the other Ratitae and differ from the kiwis, are the branched, instead of simple, porous canals in the eggshell.
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  • The affinities of the moas are undoubtedly with the Australian Ratitae, and, in spite of the differences mentioned above, with the kiwis.
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  • P. Lesson, who had previously (loc. cit.) made some blunders about it, placed it (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 12), though only, as he says, "par analogie et a priori," in his first division of birds, "Oiseaux Anomaux," which is equivalent to what we now call Ratitae, making of it a separate family "Nullipennes."
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  • In 1865 a male of the same species was introduced, but though a strong disposition to breed was shown on the part of both, and the eggs, after the custom of the Ratitae, were incubated by him, no progeny was hatched (Proceedings, 1868, P. 329).
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  • Huxley in his often-quoted paper in the Zoological Proceedings (1867, pp. 4 2 5, 426) was enabled to place the whole matter in a clear light, urging that the Tinamous formed a very distinct group of birds which;, though not to be removed from the Carinatae, presented so much resemblance to the Ratitae as to indicate them to be the bond of union between those two great divisions.
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  • There can be little doubt that they should be regarded as types of as many orders - Struthiones and Rheae - of the subclass Ratitae.
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  • Though considerably smaller than the ostrich, and wanting its fine plumes, the rhea in general aspect far more resembles that bird than the other Ratitae.
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  • It is of importance for our understanding of the position of the Ratitae in the system, that the wing-skeleton of the ostrich and rhea is an exact repetition of that of typical flying birds; the bones are much more slender, and the muscles are considerably reduced in strength also to a lesser extent in numbers, but the total length of the wing of an ostrich or a rhea is actually and comparatively enormous.
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  • The Ratitae are represented by two species of emeu (Dromaeus), besides the cassowary of Cape York peninsula, and the extinct Dromornis and Genyornis with its enormous skull.
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  • Sharpe (1891), whilst in most of the other numerous classifications the Ratitae (vicariously named Struthiones, Cursores, Brevipennes, Proceres) were treated as of much lower rank.
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  • We restrict the origin of the Ratitae to that great branch of still primitive Carinatae which, after separation of the Ratitae, has further developed into the legion of the Alectoromorphae, notably Tinamiand Galliformes, together with still low Gruiformes (see BIRD, Classification).
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