Michaelis Villanovani in quendam medicum apologetics disceptatio pro astrologia (Paris, 1538; reprinted, Berlin, 1880); the medicus is Jean Tagault, who interrupted Servetus's lectures on astronomy, including meteorology.
As far as the circlesquaring functions are concerned, it would seem that Gregory was the first (in 1670) to make known the series for the arc in terms of the tangent, the series for the tangent in terms of the arc, and the secant in terms of the arc; and in 1669 Newton showed to Isaac Barrow a little treatise in manuscript containing the series for the arc in terms of the sine, for the sine in terms of the arc, and for the cosine in terms of the arc. These discoveries 1 See Euler, ” Annotationes in locum quendam Cartesii," in Nov.
Three polemical works require mention: Contra cujusdam anonymi Galli calumnies apologia, Contra medicum quendam invectivarum libri, and De sui ipsius et multorum ignorantia - controversial and sarcastic compositions, which grew out of Petrarch's quarrels with the physicians of Avignon and the Averroists of Padua.
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