Permo-carboniferous sentence example

  • At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
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  • The former appears to be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna, which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the Permo-carboniferous.
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  • The Maitai beds have generally been considered to be Carboniferous from the presence of species of Productus found in the Permo-Carboniferous of New South Wales.
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  • Prince Edward Island, the smallest province of Canada, is low and undulating, based on Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic rocks affording a red and very fertile soil, much of which is under cultivation.
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  • At the same time it must be remembered that there is in India, South Africa, the Urals, in Australasia and parts of North America an important series of rocks, with a " Permo-Carboniferous " fauna, which constitutes a passage formation between the Carboniferous, sensu stricto, and Jurassic rocks.
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  • Glacial deposits certainly do exist in the Permo-carboniferous formations, which are described under that head, but in the true Carboniferous system glaciation may be taken as not proven.
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  • It is only in the outer foldings of the highlands that Palaeozoic fossiliferous deposits are found - Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous.
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  • A large number of the most important remains of plants with structure preserved are silicious; this is the case, for example, with the famous French Permo-Carboniferous fossils of St Etienne, Autun, &c., which in the hands of Brongniart, Renault and others have yielded such brilliant scientific results.
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  • The Glossopteris flora of India and the southern hemisphere, the age of which has been disputed, but is now regarded as for the most part Permo-Carboniferous, is, however, dealt with in the succeeding section, in connexion with the Mesozoic floras.
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  • The type-genus Botryopteris, represented in the Permo-Carboniferous of France and in both the Lower and Upper Carboniferous of Great Britain, had a rhizome, with a very simple monostelic structure, bearing spirally arranged compound leaves, with lobed pinnules, probably of a somewhat fleshy texture.
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  • This genus, from the Permo-Carboniferous of Autun, is represented by large, fleshy, reniform leaves or leaflets, with radiating dichotomous venation; the vascular bundles have in all respects the structure of those in the leaves of Cycads or Cordaiteae.
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  • The Permian, so far at least as its lower beds are concerned, shows little change from the Stephanian; Conifers of the Walchia type are especially characteristic. The remarkable Permo-Carboniferous flora of India and the southern hemisphere is described in the next section of this article.
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  • The Upper Carboniferous and Permian plants may be grouped together as constituting a Permo-Carboniferous flora characterized by an abundance of arborescent Vascular Cryptogams and of an extinct class of plants to which the name Pteridosperms has recently been assigned - plants exhibiting a combination of Cycadean and filicinean characters and distinguished by the production of true gymnospermous seeds of a complex type.
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  • On the other hand, the plant-beds of the Permo-Carboniferous age in South Africa, South America, India and Australia demonstrate the existence of a widely distributed vegetation wh i ch agrees in age with the Upper Carboniferous and of the beds in which Glossopteris and other genera make FIG.
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  • Some examples of this genus, described by Etheridge from Permo-Carboniferous beds in New South Wales, differ in some respects from the ordinary form, and bear a superficial resemblance to the Equise nected with a lowering of temperature and the prevalence of glacial conditions over a wide area in India and the southern hemisphere.
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  • The genera Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Stigmaria, or Calamites, which played so great a share in the vegetation of the same age in the northern hemisphere, have not been recognized among the Palaeozoic forms of India, but examples of Sigillaria, Lepidodendron and Bothrodendron are known to have existed in South Africa in the Permo-Carboniferous era.
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  • The Coal-bearing strata which occupy a considerable area in China (Map A, II.), contain abundant samples of a vegetation which appears to have agreed in their main features with the Permo-Carboniferous floras of the northern hemisphere.
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  • Among plants from Lower Triassic strata there are a few which form connecting links with the older Permo-Carboniferous flora; of these we have a species, described by Blanckenhon as Sigillaria oculina, which may be correctly referred to that genus, although an inspection of a plaster-cast of the type-specimen in the Berlin Bergakademie left some doubt as to the sufficiency of the evidence for adopting the generic name Sigillaria.
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  • Starting with the Permo-Carboniferous vegetation, and omitting for the moment the Glossopteris flora, we find a comparatively homogeneous flora of wide geographical range, consisting to a large extent of arborescent lycopods, calamites, and other vascular cryptogams, plants which occupied a place comparable with that of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in our modern forests; with these were other types of the greatest phylogenetic importance, which serve as finger-posts pointing to lines of evolution of which we have but the faintest signs among existing plants.
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