On distilling trimethyl stibine with zinc methyl, antimony tetra-methyl and penta-methyl are formed.
Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
Group III.: B, trivalent; Al, trivalent, but possibly also tetra-or penta-valent; Ga, divalent and trivalent; In, mono-, diand tri-valent; Tl, monovalent and trivalent..
In the same way it may be shown that three tri-substitution, three tetra-substitution, one penta-substitution, and one hexa-substitution derivative are possible.
True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in threeand four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings.
Our knowledge of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary hexyliodide.
Penta-oxyanthraquinones have been obtained from purpurin and anthrapurpurin, while a hexaoxyanthraquinone has been obtained from 1.5 dinitro anthraquinone.
It forms a penta-acetate.
Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.
POLYMETHYLENES, in chemistry, cyclic compounds, the simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of general formula C 7, H 2nj where n may be r to 9, and known as tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-methylene, &c., or cyclo- propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c.: - CH 21 CH 2 CH 2 CH2.CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2?C1H,, I I H ?
By evaporating a solution containing free sulphuric acid in a vacuum, the hepta-hydrated salt first separates, then the penta-, and then a tetra-hydrate, FeSO44H2O, isomorphous with manganese sulphate.
The chlorides AsCl2CH3 and AsCl(CH3)2 as well as As(CH3)3 are capable of combining with two atoms of chlorine, the arsenic atom apparently changing from the tri- to the penta-valent condition, and the corresponding oxygen compounds can also be oxidized to compounds containing one oxygen atom or two hydroxyl groups more, forming acids or oxides.
Frankland had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, noting that they act as trior penta-valent.
Formula also allows of the existence of six di-derivatives, six tri-derivatives, three tetraand one penta derivative, when the substituent groups are identi N %"cal; all of which are in agreement with known facts.
On heating it gives the diand penta-chlorides.