Paulsen sentence example

paulsen
  • Paulsen, Bull.
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  • Friedrich Paulsen >>
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  • des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
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  • Paulsen, Meteorolog.
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  • FRIEDRICH PAULSEN (1846-1908), German philosopher and educationalist, was born at Langenhorn (Schleswig) and educated at Erlangen, Bonn and Berlin, where he became extraordinary professor of philosophy and pedagogy in 1878.
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  • Soul is, therefore, a practical reality which Paulsen, with Schopenhauer, regards as known by the act of "will."
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  • Paulsen is almost better known for his educational writings than as a pure philosopher.
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  • Paulsen, I.
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  • Schelling and Hegel thought it was infinite reason; Schopenhauer, unconscious will; Hartmann, unconscious intelligence and will; Lotze, the activity or life of the divine spirit; Fechner, followed by Paulsen, a world of spiritual actualities comprised in the one spiritual actuality, God, in whom we live and move and have our being.
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  • Finally, Schopenhauer's voluntarism has had a profound effect on psychology inside and outside Germany, and to a less degree produced attempts to deduce from voluntaristic psychology new systems of voluntaristic metaphysics, such as those of Paulsen and Wundt.
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  • Nevertheless, largely under the influence of the exaggeration of the conservation of energy, many psychologists - Wundt, Paulsen, Riehl, Jodl, Ebbinghaus, Miinsterberg, and in England Lewes, Clifford, Romanes, Stout - have accepted Fechner's psychophysical parallelism, as far at least as men and animals are concerned.
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  • Paulsen q.v.), who spread panpsychism far and wide in his Einleitung in die Philosophie.
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  • But Paulsen tries to supply something wanting in Fechner.
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  • The originality of Paulsen consists in trying to supply an epistemological ecplanation of the metaphysics of Fechner, by reconciling him with Kant and Schopenhauer.
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  • Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle; Telesio, Bruno and Campanella; Leibnitz; the idealists, Schopenhauer and Hartmann, Fechner and Paulsen; and the materialist, Haeckel - all have agreed in according some sort of appetition to Nature.
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  • Like these predecessors, and like his younger contemporary Paulsen, in calling will fundamental he includes impulse (Trieb).
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  • His third position is his actualistic theory of soul, which he shares with Fichte, Hegel, Fechner and Paulsen.
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  • We can only explain it by supposing that Wundt wishes to believe that, beyond the " ideal," there really is proof of a transcendent, ideating, substance-generating will of God; and that he is approaching the noumenal voluntarism of his younger contemporary Paulsen.
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  • Fechner, Wundt and Paulsen have fixed the conclusion in psychology that soul is not substance but unity of mental life; and Wundt concludes from the modern history of the term that substance or " substrate " is only a secondary conception to that of causality, and that, while there is a physical causality distinct from that of substance, psychical causality requires no substance at all.
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  • In modern times the chief exponents of panpsychist views are Thomas Carlyle, Fechner and Paulsen: a similar idea lay at the root of the physical theories of the Stoics.
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  • Paulsen (6) as observed by Kleinschmidt in the winters of 1865 to 1882, supplemented by Lovering's data for summer.
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  • Thus at Godthaab we have, according to Adam Paulsen (15), comparing 3-year periods of few and many sun-spots: The years start in the autumn, and 1865-1868 includes the three winters of 1865 to '66, '66 to '67, and '67 to '68.
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  • Paulsen also gives data from two other stations in Greenland, viz.
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  • At Godthaab in 1882-1883 the auroral anomaly was, according to Paulsen, 15.5° E., the magnetic meridian lying 57.6° W.
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  • According to Paulsen (18), during the Ryder expedition in 1891-1892, the following phenomenon was seen at least twenty times by Lieut.
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  • The behaviour of the needle, as Paulsen points out, is exactly what it should be if the space occupied by the auroral curtain were traversed by electric currents directed upwards from the ground.
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  • Much the most consistent results were those obtained at Godthaab by Paulsen (15).
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  • Their results were very similar to Paulsen's.
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  • In addition to these, he mentions other auroral lines as very probably krypton lines, but in their case the wave-lengths which he quotes from Paulsen (22) are given to only three significant figures, so that the identification is more uncertain.
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  • Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
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  • To acquire this a doctor must present a further thesis (Habilitationsschrift), and must deliver two lectures, one before the faculty, followed by a discussion (colloquium), the other in public; but these lectures " seem to be merely secondary and are tending to become so more and more "; " scientific productiveness is so sharply emphasized among the conditions for admission that it overshadows all the rest " (Paulsen, loc. cit.
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  • von Humboldt instituted a special examination in 181o (Paulsen, Gesch.
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  • When used as tests of " general culture," examinations, in the view of Paulsen, based on a study of German education, not only fail in their purpose, but tend to destroy the faculties which it is desired to develop (Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, ii.
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  • If pushed to its logical conclusion the view of Paulsen must, it is submitted, lead to the complete abandonment at examinations of tests of " knowledge " as distinguished from direct tests of capacity.
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  • Paulsen), &c.; Third Report of the Royal Commissioners on Scientific Instructions, 1873; J.
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  • Hence the fallacy of those who, like Bosanquet, or like Paulsen in his Einleitung in die Philosophie, represent the realistic theory of inference as if it meant that knowledge starts from ideas and then infers that ideas are copies of things, and who then object, rightly enough, that we could not in that case compare the copy with the original, but only be able to infer from idea to idea.
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  • Paulsen, Schopenhauer.
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  • Paulsen, O.
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  • Paulsen, Ethik (1889, 1893; trans.
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  • Paulsen, Partei-politik and Moral (1900); A.
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  • Paulsen, Kant: Sein Leben and seine Lehre (1898; 4th ed., 1904; Eng.
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  • Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts vom Ausgang des Mittelalters bis auf die Gegenwart mit besonderer Riicksicht auf den klassischen Unterricht (2 vols., 2nd ed., 1896); Das Realgymnasium and die humanistische Bildung (1889); Die hoheren Schulen and das Universitdtsstudium im zo.
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  • Berkeley saw the inconsistency of this position, and, in asserting that all we perceive and all we know is nothing but ideas in " mind, spirit, soul, or myself," has the merit of having made, as Paulsen remarks, " epistemological idealism the basis of metaphysical idealism."
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  • In expanding Kant's act of synthesis till it absorbed the inner sense and the innermost soul, he started the modern paradox that soul is not substance, but subject or activity, a paradox which has been gradually handed down from Schelling and Hegel to Fechner, and from Fechner to Paulsen and Wundt.
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  • Parting, then, from Kant, Paulsen resorts to a paradox which he shares with Fechner and Wundt.
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  • The three most vital idealisms of this kind at the moment are the panpneumatism of Hartmann, combining Hegel with Schopenhauer; the panteleologism of Lotze, reviving Leibnitz; and the panpsychism of Paulsen, continuing Fechner, but with the addition of an epistemology combining Kant with Schopenhauer.
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  • But whereas Fechner and Paulsen hold that all physical processes are universally accompanied by psychical processes which are the real causes of psychical sensations, Riehl rejects this paradox of universal parallelism in order to fall into the equally paradoxical hypothesis that something or other, which is neither physical not psychical, causes both the physical phenomena of matter moving in space and the psychical phenomena of mind to arise in us as its common effects.
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  • At Godthaab in 1882-1883 the auroral anomaly was, according to Paulsen, 15.5° E., the magnetic meridian lying 57.6° W.
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  • 2 a In discussing the value of medieval examinations of the kind described, Paulsen (The German Universities (1906), p. 25) asserts that they were well adapted to increase a student's alertness, his power of comprehending new ideas, and his ability quickly and surely to assimilate them to his own, and that " they did more to enable [students] to grasp a subject than the mute and solitary reviewing and cramming of our modern examinations can possibly do."
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  • Paulsen, The German Universities, pp. 344-345)1; (vii.) examinations of several hundred candidates at a time cannot be rationally conducted so as to be equally fair to the individuality of all candidates; the individual test is the only complete one (it is admitted that examinations on a large scale necessarily involve a margin of error; but this error may be reduced to a minimum, especially by a combination of oral and practical with written work); (viii.) the multiplicity of school examinations required for different reasons produces confusion in our secondary education (there is a growing tendency to admit equivalence of " schoolleaving " and entrance examinations; thus entrance examinations of Oxford, Cambridge and London, and the Northern Universities Joint Board are interchangeable under certain conditions); (ix.) the multiplicity of examinations tends to " underselling " (the success of the London examinations in medicine proves that a high standard attracts candidates as well as a low one; possibly intermediate standards may be killed in the competition; it is by no means obvious that a uniform system of examinations would conduce to efficiency); (x.) examinations produce physical damage to health, especially in the case of women-students (on this point more statistical evidence is needed; see, however, Engelmann quoted by G.
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  • Hatchet, by Gary Paulsen, is an upper-level book for fifth graders about a boy who must survive in the Canadian wilderness after a small plane crash.
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  • Gary Paulsen's Hatchet is an adventure story at its best, featuring a boy who must fend for himself in the Canadian wilderness after the pilot of his tiny plane suffers a heart attack and crashes the aircraft.
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