She was educated, principally, by the learned Johannes Matthiae, in as masculine a way as possible, while the great Oxenstjerna himself instructed her in politics.
Axel Oxenstjerna himself said of her, when she was only fifteen: "Her majesty is not like women-folk, but is stout-hearted and of a good understanding, so that, if she be not corrupted, we have good hopes of her."
The Swedish plenipotentiaries were Johan Oxenstjerna, the chancellor's son, and Adler Salvius.
Young Oxenstjerna, haughty and violent, claimed, by right of birth and rank, to be caput legationis.
It was supposed that he would marry the queen regnant, Christina, but her unsurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, and to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him (1649) her successor, despite the opposition of the senate headed by the venerable Axel Oxenstjerna.
The Swedes, whose leader was now the chancellor Oxenstjerna, were stunned by this catastrophe, but in a desultory fashion they maintained the struggle, and in April 1633 a Th new league was formed at Heilbronn betweenthem and Ieaue of the representatives of four of the German circles, ileiihronn while by a new agreement France continued to furnish and the monetary aid.
The great Swedish minister, Oxenstjerna, obtained for him a pension, and a commission to furnish a plan for regulating the Swedish schools according to his own method.
In the northern forecourt is a statue (r890) of Axel Oxenstjerna, the chancellor, by J.
The fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula was now occupied and Gustavus treated it as a permanent conquest, making his great minister Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general.
It was the exploits of Oxenstjerna and Baner which alone enabled Sweden to obtain even what she did obtain at the great Westphalian peace congress in 1648.
From 1632 to 1644 Axel Oxenstjerna was virtually the ruler of Sweden.
with a personal dislike of the mighty ruler of France and contributed to reverse the traditional diplomacy of Sweden by giving it a strong anti-French bias (see Charles Xi.; Oxenstjerna, Benedict).
20, 1700), the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favour of Sweden by France and the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of " ending this present lean war and making his majesty the arbiter of Europe."
Of the academical poets Johan Gabriel Oxenstjerna (1750-1818), the nephew of Gyllenborg, was a descriptive idyllist of grace.
The surrender of Elbing and Marienburg placed Gustavus in possession of the fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula, which he treated as a permanent conquest, making Axel Oxenstjerna its first governorgeneral.
The motives which induced the Swedish king to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War are told us by himself in his correspondence with Oxenstjerna.
Oxenstjerna was the first alternative, but Gustavus decided in favour of the second.
Oxenstjerna, Skrifter och Brefvexling (Stockholm, 1900, &c.); G.
The motives of Gustavus in plunging into the Thirty Years' War and the details of the struggle as regards Sweden are else- Sweden where set forth (see Gustavus Ii.; Oxenstjerna Thirty [A XEL]; [[Baner [Johan]]]; [[Torstensson [Lennart]]]).
At home the Reduktion was cautiously pursued, while abroad the successful conclusion of the great peace congress at Ryswick was justly regarded as a signal triumph of Sweden's pacific diplomacy (see Oxenstjerna Family).
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