The Enneacrunus has hitherto been generally identified with the spring Callirrhoe in the bed of the Ilissus, a little to the south-east of the Olympieum; it is apparently, though not explicitly, placed by Thucydides (ii.
D6rpfeld's identification of the Dionysium, Ev Xt pvats cannot be regarded as proved; his view that another Pythium and another Olympieum existed in this neighbourhood is still less probable; but the inconclusiveness of these theories does not necessarily invalidate his identification of the Enneacrunus, with regard to the position of which the language of Thucydides is far from clear.
The Cynosarges, from earliest times a sanctuary of Heracles, later a celebrated gymnasium and the school of Antisthenes The Cyno- Cynic, has hitherto been generally supposed to on the eastern slope of Lycabettus; its situation, however, has been fixed by D6rpfeld at a point a little to the south of the Olympieum, on the left bank of the Ilissus.
The greatest monument, however, of the Hellenistic period is the colossal Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, " unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei " (Livy The 01 m- xli.
Besides completing the gigantic Olympieum he enlarged the circuit of the city walls to the east, enclosing the area now covered by the royal and the build- public gardens and the Constitution Square.
An ornamental entrance near the Olympieum, the existing Arch of Hadrian, marked the boundary between the new and the old cities.
It has been suggested that it may be Phoenician: and, again, the plural form has been thought to point perhaps to "the union of two originally distinct posts," one on the island, the other on the mainland on the hill where the ruins of the Olympieum stand, known as iroA(Xvn - the latter being the original Syracuse.
In 397 Syracuse had to stand a siege from the Carthaginians under Himilco, who took up his quarters at the Olympieum, but his troops in the marshes below suffered from pestilence, and a masterly combined attack by land and sea by Dionysius ended in his utter defeat.
He travelled by way of Athens, where he completed and dedicated the buildings (see Athens) begun during his first visit, chief of which was the Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, on which occasion Hadrian himself assumed the name of Olympius.
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