ethylene dibromide) with silver acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus: C 2 H 4 Br 2 + C2H302 Ag-*C2H4(O C2H30)2->C2H4(OH)2+2K C2H302 by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
The product actually obtained is a mixture of several paraffins and several olefines.
For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
The simple olefines containing one doublylinked pair of carbon atoms have the general formula (CnH2n; the di-olefines, containing two doubly-linked pairs, have the general formula C0H2n_2 and are consequently isomeric with the simple acetylenes.
The higher olefines are found in the tar which is obtained by distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among the products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T.
The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
Chablay, Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 123) 2CH 2 :CH CH 2 OH+2NH 3 Na = CH,:CH CH3+CH2:CH CH20Na +NaOH+2NH31 from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C5H,9-I-2CH31 =2H1+ C 7 H, 4 i and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen substituted olefines.
Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.
In their phy s ical properties, the olefines resemble the normal paraffins, the lower members of the series being inflammable gases, the members from C5 to C14 liquids insoluble in water, and from C16 upwards of solids.
While working on the olefines he noticed that a change takes place in the density of the vapour of amylene hydrochloride, hydrobromide, &c., as the temperature is increased, and in the gradual passage from a gas of approximately normal density to one of half-normal density he saw a powerful argument in favour of the view that abnormal vapour densities, such as are exhibited by sal-ammoniac or phosphorus pentachloride, are to be explained by dissociation.
Confining ourselves to cases where titration methods are not employed, the general order is as follows: carbon dioxide, olefines, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen (by difference).
The olefines - ethylene, &c. - are generally absorbed by a very strong sulphuric acid prepared by adding sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid to form a mixture which solidifies when slightly cooled.
The temperature must be above 18'; and the absorption is prevented by ammonia, olefines, alcohol, and some other substances.
paraffins, under the influence of heat, split up into simpler members of the same series and into olefines; and if we imagine the action in its simplest form, we should have the gases, as they were evolved, consisting of (say) ethane and ethylene.
From this it will be seen that, with the increase of temperature, the hydrocarbons - the olefines and marsh gas series - gradually break up, depositing carbon in the crown of the retort, and liberating hydrogen, the percentage of which steadily increases with the rise of temperature.
Primary alcohols are obtained by decomposing their sulphuric acid esters (from sulphuric acid and the olefines) with boiling water; by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines; or by the reduction of aldehydes, acid chlorides or acid anhydrides.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5Ã‚° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below looÃ‚° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250Ã‚° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.
Dilute potassium permanganate oxidizes the olefines to glycols (G.
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