From this time forward, Oldenbarneveldt at the head of the civil government and Maurice in command of the armed forces of the republic worked together in the task of rescuing the United Netherlands from Spanish domination (for details see Holland).
The twelve years' truce on the 9th of April 1609 brought to an end the cordial relations between Maurice and Oldenbarneveldt.
Oldenbarneveldt, supported by the states of Holland, came forward as the champion of provincial sovereignty against that of the states-general; Maurice threw the weight of his sword on the side of the union.
Oldenbarneveldt perished on the scaffold, and the share which Maurice had in securing the illegal condemnation by a packed court of judges of the aged patriot must ever remain a stain upon his memory.
Maurice, who had on the death of his elder brother Philip William, in February 1618, become prince of Orange, was now supreme in the state, but during the remainder of his life he sorely missed the wise counsels of the experienced Oldenbarneveldt.
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France.
His conduct of affairs having displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by Oldenbarneveldt in 1616.
He belonged to the party of Oldenbarneveldt and Grotius, and brought down the displeasure of the government by a copy of Latin verses in honour of their friend Hoogerbeets.
In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the order of nobles (Ridderschap) was the foremost official of that assembly and he was named - until the death of Oldenbarneveldt in 1619 - the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate.
The importance of the advocate was much increased after the outbreak of the revolt in 1572, and still more so during the long period 1586-161g when John van Oldenbarneveldt held the office.
After the downfall of Oldenbarneveldt the office of lands'- advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five years only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad-Pensionaris, or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by English writers.
had to be content with lessened powers, but in the stadtholderless regime1650-1672the grand pensionary became even more influential than Oldenbarneveldt himself, since there was no prince of Orange filling the offices of stadtholder, and of admiral and captain-general of the Union.
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
The States of Holland under the leadership of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, took up an attitude of resolute hostility to him, and the States of Holland dominated the States-General.
The commanding abilities of Oldenbarneveldt, now advocate of Holland, gradually gathered into his hands the entire administration of the Republic. He became indispensable and, as his influence grew, more and more did the policy of the provinces acquire unity and con sistency of purpose.
Dunkirk, as a nest of freebooters who preyed upon Dutch commerce, was made the objective of a daring offensive campaign in 1600 by the orders of the States-General under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt in the teeth of the opposi tion of the stadholders Maurice and William Louis .
The peace party in the United Provinces headed by Oldenbarneveldt was opposed by the stadholders Maurice and William Louis, the great majority of the military and naval officers, the Calvinist preachers and many leading merchants.
One of the immediate results of this triumph of his policy was the increase of Oldenbarneveldt's influence and authority in the government of the Republic. But though Maurice and his other opponents had reluctantly yielded to the advocate's skilful diplomacy and persuasive arguments, a soreness remained between the statesman and the stadholder which was destined never to be healed.
The States-General (9th of July 1618) took up the challenge, and the prince of Orange, as captain-general, was placed at the head of a commission to go in the first place to Utrecht, which supported Oldenbarneveldt, and then to the various cities of Holland to insist on the disbanding of the waardgelders.
Maurice, after the death of Oldenbarneveldt, was supreme in the land, but he missed sorely the wise counsels of the old statesman whose tragic end .
The party and the principles of Oldenbarneveldt, however, though crushed, were not extinguished, and though Frederick Henry by his personal influence and prudent statesmanship had been able to surmount the difficulties placed in his way, he had had to encounter at times strong opposition, and had been much hampered in the conduct both of his campaigns and of his policy.
The antiOrange party, remembering the fate of Oldenbarneveldt, were stricken with panic at the imprisonment of their leaders.
Such a system would have been unworkable but for the fact that with the revival of the political principles of Oldenbarneveldt, there was found statesman of commanding ability to fill the office in which the famous advocate of Grand of Holland had for so many years been " minister of - all affairs " in the forming state.
Johan Van Oldenbarneveldt >>
It was this influence as exerted by the successive advocates of Holland, Paul Buys and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, Johan van which rendered abortive the well-meant efforts of the Oldenbarneveldt.
The conclusion of the twelve years' truce in 1609 was a triumph for Oldenbarneveldt and the province of Holland over the opposition of Maurice, prince of Orange.
The claims of Holland were overthrown and the head of Oldenbarneveldt fell upon the scaffold (1619).
(Raad-Pensionaris) of Holland, for two decades held in his hands all the threads of administration, and occupied the same position of undisputed authority in the councils of the land as Oldenbarneveldt had done at the beginning of the century.
of Spain, and in front of which the grey-headed statesman Johan van Oldenbarneveldt was executed in 1619.
JOHAN VAN OLDENBARNEVELDT (1547-1619), Dutch statesman, was born at Amersfoort on the 14th of September 1 547.
After studying law at Louvain, Bourges and Heidelberg, and travelling in France and Italy, Oldenbarneveldt settled down to practise in the law courts at the Hague.
He was active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the acceptance of the countship of Holland and Zeeland by William (1584) On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Oldenbarneveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once elected stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Holland.
Fortunately for the Netherlands the attention of Philip was at their time of greatest weakness riveted upon his contemplated invasion of England, and a respite was afforded which enabled Oldenbarneveldt to supply the lack of any central organized government by gathering into his own hands the control of administrative affairs.
In 1598 Oldenbarneveldt took part in special embassies to Henry IV.
The archdukes having consented to treat with the United Provinces "as free provinces and states over which they had no pretensions," Oldenbarneveldt, who had with him the States of Holland and the majority of burgher regents throughout the county, was for peace, provided that liberty of trading was conceded.
The immediate effect of the truce was a strengthening of Oldenbarneveldt's influence in the government of the republic, now recognized as a "free and independent state"; external peace, however, was to bring with it internal strife.
The whole land was henceforth divided into Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants; the States of Holland under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt supported the former, and refused to sanction the summoning of a purely church synod (1613).
Oldenbarneveldt was with his friends kept in the strictest confinement until November, and then brought for examination before a commission appointed by the states-general.
The accusations brought against Oldenbarneveldt of having been a traitor to his country, whose interests he had betrayed for foreign gold, have no basis in fact.
The condemnation of Oldenbarneveldt was carried out with Maurice's consent and approval, and he cannot be acquitted of a prominent share in what posterity has pronounced to be a judicial murder.
Oldenbarneveldt was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht.
A conspiracy against the life of Maurice, in which the sons of Oldenbarneveldt took part, was discovered in 1623.
Oldenbarneveldt en zijn tijd (1577-1609; 3 vols., 1860-1865); J.
van Oldenbarneveldt, Historie Warachtige van de ghevanckennise ...
On the withdrawal of Leicester from the Netherlands in August 1587, Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, the advocate of Holland, became the leading statesman of the country, a position which he retained for upwards of thirty years.
He had implicit trust in the advocate, his father's faithful friend and counsellor, and for many years to come the statesman and the soldier worked in harmony together for the best interests of their country (see Oldenbarneveldt, and Maurice, prince of Orange).
After his departure (1587) the advocate of Holland, Oldenbarnevel,dt, became the indispensable statesman of the struggling republic. The multiplicity of his functions gave to the advocate an almost unlimited authority in the details of administration, and for thirty years the conduct of affairs remained in his hands (see Oldenbarneveldt).
All his private papers fell into the hands of his foes, but not even the bitterest and ablest of his personal enemies, Francis Aarssens (see Aarssens), could extract from them anything to show that Oldenbarneveldt at any time betrayed his country's interests.
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