Sometimes the pad is reduced to a ventral semi-ring or meniscus; it retains its largest almost original shape and size in the second vertebra, the axis or epistropheus, where it forms a separately ossifying piece which connects, and coossifies with, the odontoid process (the centrum of the atlas) and the centrum of the second vertebra.
Change of form of the odontoid process of the second or axis vertebrae from a cone to a hollow half-cylinder.
The odontoid process of the second vertebra is pig-like: and the tibia and fibula and radius and ulna are severally distinct.
The odontoid process of the axis is wide, flat, and hollowed above, as in the ruminants.
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