In 259 Odenathus, the Palmyrene adventurer whose memory has been eclipsed by that of his wife Zenobia, laid Nehardea waste for the time being, and in its neighbourhood arose the academy of Pumbedita (Pombeditha) which became a new focus for the intellectual life of Israel in Babylonia.
In the next generation Septimius Odainath or Odenathus, son of Hairan, had attained the rank of Roman senator (UlryKX?iTCKOS, Vogue No.
The Persians swept victoriously over Asia Minor and North Syria; not however without resistance on the part of Odenathus, who inflicted considerable losses on the bands returning home from the pillage of Antioch.
Under Odenathus Palmyra had extended her sway over Syria and Arabia, perhaps also over Armenia, Cilicia and Cappadocia; but now the troops of Zenobia, numbering it is said 70,000, proceeded to occupy Egypt; the Romans under Probus resisted vigorously but without avail, and by the beginning of A.D.
C. 264) beat them back, and Odenathus (Odainath), prince of Palmyra, rose in their rear, defeated Shapur, captured his harem, and twice forced his way to Ctesiphon (263265).
(who was certainly an able general) by Ballista and Odenathus of Palmyra, or the later victories of Carus, J ulian and others, demonstrated how far the Persians were from being on an equality with the Romans.
125); while his son - the relationship, though nowhere stated, is practically certain - the famous Septimius Odainath, commonly known as Odenathus (q.v.), the husband of Zenobia, received even higher rank, the consular dignity (inrareK6) which is given him in an inscription dated A.D.
It was probably not long after this that Odenathus, with a keen eye for his advantage, made an attempt to attach himself to Shapur I.
During the crisis Odenathus remained loyal to Gallienus, and was rewarded for his fidelity by the grant of a position without parallel under ordinary circumstances; as hereditary prince of Palmyra he was appointed dux Orientis, a sort of vice-emperor for the East (A.D.
262-267) that Palmyra was administered by his deputy Septimius Worod, " procurator ducenarius of Caesar our lord," also styled " commandant," as being Odenathus' viceroy (eci yairETrts, NSI.
Then in the zenith of his success Odenathus was assassinated at Moms (Emesa) along with his eldest son Herodes (A.D.
271) that the two chief Palmyrene generals Zabda and Zabbai, set up a statue to the deceased Odenathus and gave him the sounding designation of " king of kings and restorer of the whole city " No.
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