After his death, his pupils published a Philosophic Generalis (1770) and a Jus Naturae (1765), which he had left in manuscript.
(2) Raymond of Sabunde's Liber naturae sive creaturarum (1434-36) bears also the title Theologia Naturalis - but not from the author's own hand,3 though his introduction to the book in question, the Prologue, put upon the Index at Rome for its daring, describes the " book of nature " as " connatural to us," in contrast with the " supernatural" book, the Bible, which belongs to the clerics.
Spinoza abounds in the same sense, and is as usual perfectly candid " Naturae leges et regulae, secundum quas omnia fiunt et ex unis formis in alias mutantur, sunt ubique et semper eadem."
Amalric's teaching was condemned by the Church, and his heresies led to the public burning of Erigena's De divisione naturae in 1225.
Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.
edition of the celebrated Systema Naturae.
Immediately on the completion of his Regne Animale in 1756, Brisson set about his Ornithologie, and it is only in the last two volumes of the latter that any reference is made to the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, in which the binomial method was introduced.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.
A comparison of the relation of created beings to a number of intersecting circles is as old as the days of Nieremberg, who in 1635 wrote (Historia naturae, lib.
For his work in connexion with gunpowder, the invention of which has been claimed for him on the ground of a passage in his De mirabili potestate antis et naturae, see Gunpowder.
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
Loscher affirms in regard to miracles that " solus Deus potest tum supra naturae vires turn contra naturae leges agere "; and Buddaeus argues that in them a " suspensio legum naturae " is followed by a restitutio.
Against the common view that miracles can attest the truth of a divine revelation Gerhard maintained that " per miracula non possunt probari oracula "; and Hopfner returns to the qualified position of Augustine when he describes them as praeter et supra naturae ordinem."
Among his other works are Oratio de instituenda in republica juventate (1559); Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566); Universale Naturae Theatrum (1596, French trans.
2 The Academia Secretorum Naturae was founded at Naples in 1560, but was suppressed by the ecclesiastical authorities.
His great work, the Systema naturae, ran through twelve editions during his lifetime (1st ed.
The notion of a scala naturae, which had since the days of classical antiquity been a part of the general philosophy of nature amongst those who occupied themselves with such conceptions, now took a more definite form in the minds of skilled zoologists.
He opposed the scala naturae theory, and recognized four distinct and divergent branches or embranchemens, as he called them, in each of which he arranged a certain number of the Linnaean classes, or similar classes.
allgemeines historisches Lexikon (Leipzig, 1709 ff.); Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Testamenti (4 vols., Halle, 1709); Elementa Philosophiae Practicae, Instrumentalis, et Theoreticae (3 vols., 1697); Selecta Juris Naturae et Gentium (Halle, 1704); Miscellanea Sacra (3 vols., Jena, 1727); and Isagoge Historico-Theologica ad Theologiam Universam, singulasque ejus pales (2 vols., 1727).
He rejected the vis medicatrix naturae, pointing out that nature in many cases not only did not help but marred the cure.
(It is fair to say that these views were published in one of his later works.) In treatment of disease Hahnemann rejected entirely the notion of a vis medicatrix naturae, and was guided by his well-known principle 1 The itch (scabies) is really an affection produced by the presence in the skin of a species of mite (Acarus scabiei), and when this is destroyed or removed the disease is at an end.
Hevelius (Selenographia, 1647); Schott Magia Universalis Naturae et Artis, 1674); C. F.
Germany The earliest trace of the literary journal in Germany is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopoldina-Carolina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des savants and of the Philosophical Transactions.
Hippocrates based his principles and practice on the theory of the existence of a spiritual restoring essence or principle, cl)GQCs, the vis medicatrix naturae, in the management of which the art of the physician consisted.
The order was founded by Linnaeus (Systema Naturae, 1 735), and is still recognized by Terzi.._.
Arcana naturae ope exactissimorum microscopiorum selecta, Leiden, 1715-1722); and a selection from them was translated by S.
His fame rests chiefly on the preface and notes to his translation of Pufendorf's treatise De Jure Naturae et Gentium.
Barbeyrac also translated Grotius's De Jure Belli et Pacis, Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae, and Pufendorf's smaller treatise De Officio Hominis et Civis.
In botany the custom followed by John Ray (1627-1705) in his Historia Plantarum and in other works was continued in 1760 by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae.
Linnaeus, even in his latest publication, placed it in the genus Hirundo; but the interleaved and annotated copies of his Systema naturae in the Linnean Society's library show the species marked for separation and insertion in the Order Grallae - Pratincola trachelia being the name by which he had meant to designate it in any future edition.
But besides this, as Leslie has pointed out, the influence of Montesquieu tended to counterbalance the theoretic prepossessions produced by the doctrine of the jus naturae.
There were crude medieval notions that fossils were " freaks " or " sports " of nature (lusus naturae), or that they represented failures of a creative force within the earth (a notion of Greek and Arabic origin), or that larger and smaller fossils represented the remains of races of giants or of pygmies (the mythical idea).
Physiognomy also forms the third part of his work De secretis naturae.
He describes the Naturalis historia, as a Naturae historia, and characterizes it as a "work that is learned and full of matter, and as varied as nature herself."
They were not payable of the following, except by custom: things of the substance of the earth, such as coals, minerals, turf and the like; things ferae naturae, such as fish, deer and the like; things tame, such as fowls, hounds or fish kept for pleasure or curiosity; barren land, until it is converted into arable or meadow land, and has been so for seven years; forest land, if in the hands of the king or his lessee, unless disafforested; a park which is disparked; or glebe land in the hands of the parson or vicar, which was mutually exempted from payment by the one to the other, but not if in the hands of the vicar's lessee.
As already seen, fish being ferae naturae are only tithable by custom; but fish taken in the sea by the custom of the realm are tithable as a personal tithe, i.e.
The medieval theologians followed in the same line, recognizing all the precepts of the Decalogue as moral precepts de lege naturae, though the law of the Sabbath is not of the law of nature, in so far as it prescribes a determinate day of rest (Thomas, summa, Ima IIaae, qu.
Vera autem ratio, quum virtutibus suis rata atque immutabilis munitur, nullius auctoritatis adstipulatione roborari indiget" (De divisione naturae, i.
Erigena's great work, De divisione naturae, which was condemned by a council at Sens, by Honorius III.
Of the De divisione naturae, editions have been published by Thomas Gale (Oxford, 1681); C. B.
In the order of human knowledge the particular facts of experience come first and are the basis of generalized laws or causes (the Scholastic notiora nobis); but in the order of nature the latter rank first as the self-existent, fundamental truths of existence (notiora naturae).
It is in a clerical work written to refute Hobbes, Bishop Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae (pub.
In the fragment De Interpretation Naturae Prooemium (written probably about 1603) Bacon analyses his own mental character and lays before us the objects he had in view when he entered on public life.
(7) The brief tract De Interpretatione Naturae Sententiae Duodecim is evidently a first sketch of part of the Novum Organum, and in phraseology is almost identical with it.
It should be observed that many writers maintain that the phrase should be notiora natura; others, notiora naturae.
Such a mode of procedure may be called anticipatio naturae (for in it reason is allowed to prescribe to things), and is opposed to the true method, the interpretatio naturae, in which reason follows and obeys nature, discovering her secrets by obedience and submission to rule.
The most destructive of the ferae naturae, as regards human life, are, however, the snakes.
The only authority which he admits is the lex naturae.
"Free-thinker" (in Germany, Freidenker) was generally taken to be synonymous with "deist," though obviously capable of a wider signification, and as coincident with esprit fort and with libertin in the original and theological sense of the word.(Fn 1) "Naturalists" was a name frequently used of such as recognized no god but nature, of so-called Spinozists, atheists; but both in England and Germany, in the 18th century, this word was more commonly and aptly in use for those who founded their religion on the lumen naturae alone.
Reverting to the distinction in Roman law, Grotius and Pufendorf, with many others, treat protection as an instance of unequal treaties; that is, " when either the promises are unequal, or when either of the parties is obliged to harder conditions " (De jure belli et pacis, 1 C. 13.21; De jure naturae, 8.
The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus, who in his Systema Naturae (1735) grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to which he gave the name of Primates.
Linnaeus, Systema naturae (12th ed.
In 1672 appeared the De jure naturae et gentium, libri octo, and in 1675 a resume of it under the title of De officio hominis et civis.
In the De jure naturae et gentium Pufendorf took up in great measure the theories of Grotius and sought to complete them by means of the doctrines of Hobbes and of his own ideas.
Cicero says, " Physiologia naturae ratio," and such was the meaning of the name Physiologus, given to a cyclopaedia of what was known and imagined about earth, sea, sky, birds, beasts and fishes, which for a thousand years was the authoritative source of information on these matters, and was translated into every European tongue.
In this respect his system presents a striking contrast to Cumberland's, whose treatise De Legibus Naturae (1672), though written like More's in Latin, is yet in its ethical matter thoroughly modern.
He first follows Shaftesbury in exhibiting the social affections as no less natural than the appetites and desires which tend directly to self-preservation; then reviving the Stoic view of the prima naturae, the first objects of natural appetites, he argues that pleasure is not the primary aim even of the impulses which Shaftesbury allowed to be " self-affections "; but rather a result which follows upon their attaining their natural ends.
Among his very numerous works two poems entitle him to a distinguished place in the Latin literature of the middle ages; one of these, the De planctu naturae, is an ingenious satire on the vices of humanity; the other, the Anticlaudianus, a treatise on morals, the form of which recalls the pamphlet of Claudian against Rufinus, is agreeably versified and relatively pure in its latinity.
A critical edition of the Anticlaudianus and of the De planctu naturae is given by Th.
Suarez maintains that, though the humanity of Socrates does not differ from that of Plato, yet they do not constitute realiter one and the same humanity; there are as many "formal unities" (in this case, humanities) as there are individuals, and these individuals do not constitute a factual, but only an essential or ideal unity ("ita ut plura individua, quae dicuntur esse ejusdem naturae, non sint unum quid vera entitate quae sit in rebus, sed solum fundamentaliter vel per intellectum").
teenth Edition of the celebrated Systema Naturae, which obtained so wide a circulation that, in the comparative rarity of the original, the additions of this editor have been very frequently quoted, even by expert naturalists, as though they were the work of the author himself.
Many are transcripts of works or portions of works already published and, therefore, require no notice.2 The works hitherto printed (neglecting reprints) are the following: - (I) Speculum Alchimiae (1541) - translated into English (1597); French, A Poisson (1890); (2) De Mirabili Potestate Artis et Naturae (1542) - English translation (1659); (3) Libellus de Retardandis Senectutis Accidentibus (1590) - translated as the "Cure of Old Age," by Richard Brown (London, 1683); (4) Sanioris Medicinae Magistri D.
Brewer (1859), containing the Opus Tertium, Opus Minus, Compendium Studii Philosophiae and the De Secretis Operibus Naturae; (9) De Morali Philosophia (Dublin, 1860, see below); (io) The Greek Grammar of R.
Moreover, Erigena again and again declares that dialectic has to do with the stadia of a real or divine classification: " Intelligitur quod ars ilia, quae dividit genera in species et species in genera resolvit, quae X dicitur, non ab humanis machinationibus sit facta, sed in natura rerum ab auctore omnium artium, quae verae artes sunt, condita et a sapientibus inventa " (De divisione naturae, iv.
The first founded of surviving European academies, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum (1651),2 especially confined itself to the description and illustration of the structure of plants and animals; eleven years later (1662) the Royal Society of London was incorporated by royal charter, having existed without a name or fixed organization for 1 The medieval attitude towards both plants and animals had no relation to real knowledge, but was part of a peculiar and in itself highly interesting mysticism.
fallacious conception of a scala naturae.
These teachers, genuinely touched with a sense of the scantiness of our knowledge, of our confidence in abstract terms, of the insecurity of our alleged "facts," case-histories and observations, alienated from traditional dogmatisms and disgusted by meddlesome polypharmacy - enlightened, moreover, by the issue of cases treated by means such as the homoeopathic, which were practically "expectant" - urged that the only course open to the physician, duly conscious of his own ignorance and of the mystery of nature, is to put his patient under diet and nursing, and, relying on the tendency of all equilibriums to recover themselves under perturbation, to await events (Vis medicatrix naturae).
Philologie' (1875); Orientalische Bibliographic (1888); Mathematics: Jahrbuch fiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik (1869); Medicine and Surgery: Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen and Fortschritte der gesamten Medizin (1866); Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen auf dem Gebiete der Veterindrmedizin 0880; Military: Jahresbericht fiber Veranderungen and Fortschritte im Militdrwesen (1874); Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen and Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete des Militeirsaniteitswesens (1873); Natural Science: Naturae novitates (1819), fortnightly; Bibliographie der deutschen naturwissenschaftlichen Literatur (1901); Bibliographia zoologica (1896); Zoologischer Jahresbericht (1879); Justs botanischer Jahresbericht (1873); Die Fortschritte der Physik (1847); Technicology: Repertorium der technischen Journalliteratur (1874); Theology: Theologischer Jahresbericht (1881); Bibliographie der Kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur (1877).
The basic philosophy of massage therapy embraces the concept of vis Medicatrix naturae, which means "aiding the ability of the body to heal itself."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.