Moawiya sentence example

moawiya
  • Moawiya, the first Omayyad caliph, chose Damascus for his residence; but in 750 the capital of the empire was removed by the Abbasids to Bagdad.
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  • Three years later the fateful step was taken of appointing Moawiya (Mu'awiyya) governor of Syria.
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  • After the murder of Othman, `Ali (656-661) became caliph, but Moawiya, governor of Syria, soon rebelled on the pretext of avenging the death of Othman.
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  • Omar was so terrified by this that when Moawiya applied to him for permission to use ships for an attack on the islands of the aevant, he resolutely refused.
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  • With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
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  • Both these cities were secured by Moawiya in 660, and at the same time Yemen was punished for its adherence to 'All.
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  • Hasan soon made peace with Moawiya.
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  • It is told, however, that Moawiya summoned an old man named `Abid ibn Sharya from Yemen to Damascus to tell him all he knew about ancient history and that he induced him to write down his information.
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  • After the surrender of Jerusalem `Amr began the siege of Caesarea, which, however, was brought to a successful end in September or October 640 by Moawiya, `Amr having obtained Omar's sanction for an expedition against Egypt.
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  • Removed from his office by Othman in 647, who replaced him by Ibn abi Sarh, he sided with Moawiya in the contest for the caliphate, and was largely responsible for the deposition of Ali and the establishment of the Omayyad dynasty.
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  • Not long afterwards there was a new excitement in Moawiya's incursion across to the Tigris.
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  • Besides a valuable account of the principal sacred sites of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee as they existed in the 7th century, he also gives important information as to Alexandria and Constantinople, briefly describes Damascus and Tyre, the Nile and the Lipari volcanoes, and refers to the caliph Moawiya I .
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  • In the troubles which overtook the Islamic empire with the accession of Othman, Egypt was greatly involved, arid it had to be reconquered from the adherents of Au for Moawiya (Moawiyah) by Amr, who in A.H.
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  • The Greek city was destroyed by the Arabs under the Caliph Moawiya in 647, and does not seem to have revived.
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  • Dissensions and rivalries soon broke out among the Moslem leaders, and in 661 Moawiya, the first caliph of the Omayyad.
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  • With the murder of Othman the dynastic principle gained the twofold advantage of a legitimate cry - that of vengeance for the blood of the grey-haired caliph and a distinguished champion, the governor Moawiya, whose position in Syria was impregnable.
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  • Syria was the proper soil for the rise of an Arabian kingdom, and Moawiya was just the man to make use of the situation.
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  • Moawiya could either act or refrain from acting as he chose, secure in either case 4 Or, at least, so they thought.
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  • But in yielding to the will of the majority he excited the displeasure of the minority, the genuine zealots, who in Moawiya were opposing the enemy of Islam, and regarded Ali's entering into negotiations with him as a denial of the faith.
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  • An example of this occurs at the outset in the assertion that Moawiya deliberately refrained from marching to the help of Othman, and indeed that it was with secret joy that he heard of the fatal result of the plot.
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  • If the caliph then, as the chroniclers tell, sent a message to Moawiya for help, his messenger could not have accomplished half the journey to Damascus when the catastrophe took place.
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  • There is no real reason to doubt that the painful news fell on Moawiya unexpectedly, and that he, as mightiest representative of the Omayyad house, regarded as his own the duty of avenging the crime.
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  • An acknowledgment of Ali as caliph by Moawiya before he had cleared himself from suspicion was therefore quite impossible.
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  • When Abu Bekr sent his troops for the conquest of Syria, Yazid, the eldest son of Abu Sofian, held one of the chief commands, with Moawiya as his lieutenant.
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  • Moawiya himself was not present, as he was conducting an attack (the result of which we do not know) on Caesarea in Cappadocia.
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  • The contention which Moawiya had with Ali checked his progress in the north.
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  • Moawiya was a born ruler, and Syria was, as we have seen, the best administered province of the whole empire.
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  • The battle at Siffin (657), near the Euphrates, which lasted two months and consisted principally in, sometimes bloody, skirmishes, with alternate success, ended by the well-known appeal to the decision of the Koran on the part of Moawiya.
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  • There is in reality no room for suspecting Moawiya of not having been in earnest when making this appeal; he might well regret that internecine strife should drain the forces which were so much wanted for the spread of Islam.
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  • On each side an umpire was appointed, Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, the candidate of Ash`ath, on that of Ali, Amr-ibn-el-Ass (q.v.) on that of Moawiya.
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  • Ali refusing to submit to this decision, Moawiya became the champion of the law,.
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  • As soon as Amr returned from Adhroh, Moawiya sent him with an army of four or five thousand men against Egypt.
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  • Moawiya, realizing that Ali would take all possible means to crush him, took his measures accordingly.
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  • Freed from this difficulty, Ali prepared to direct his march against Moawiya, but his soldiers declined to move.
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  • Not a few of his former partisans went over to Moawiya, as already had happened before the days of Siffin, amongst others Ali's own brother Vigil.
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  • Moawiya from his side made incessant raids into Ali's dominion, and by his agents caused a very serious revolt in Basra.
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  • Abi Arta made his expedition against Medina and Mecca, whose inhabitants were compelled to acknowledge the caliphate of Moawiya.
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  • On the murder of Ali in 66r, his son Hasan was chosen caliph, but he recoiled before the prospect of a war with Moawiya, having neither the ambition nor the energy of Ali.
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  • Moawiya stood then with a large army in Maskin, a rich district lying to the north of the later West Bagdad, watered by the Dojail, or Little Tigris, a channel from the Euphrates to the Tigris.
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  • Hasan and Ibn Abbas opened, each for himself, negotiations with Moawiya.
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  • The legend that he was poisoned by order of Moawiya is without the least foundation.
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  • Moawiya now made his entry into Kufa in the summer of A.H.
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  • One strong antagonist to Moawiya remained, in the person of Ziyad.
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  • This remarkable man was said to be a bastard of Abu Sofian, the father of Moawiya, and was, by his mother, the brother of Abu Bakra, a man of great wealth and position at Basra.
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  • He was a faithful servant of Ali and put down for him the revolt excited by Moawiya's partisans in Basra.
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  • Moawiya, therefore, sent Bosr b.
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  • Ziyad was obdurate, and it was due to his brother Abu Bakra, who persuaded Moawiya to cancel the order, that the threat was not executed.
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  • On his return to Damascus, Moawiya charged Moghira b.
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  • As soon as Moawiya had his hands free, he directed all his forces against the Greeks.
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  • Moawiya seems also to have acknowledged him as the son of Abu Sofian, and thus as his brother; in 664 this recognition was openly declared.'
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  • Seven of them who refused to pledge themselves to obedience were put to death; the Shiites considered them as martyrs and accused Moawiya of committing a great crime.
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  • Sa`id, son of the caliph Othman, whom Moawiya made governor of Khorasan, in 674 marched against Samarkand.
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  • Moawiya was a typical Arab sayyid (gentleman).
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  • One of Moawiya's estates bordered on that of Abdallah b.
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  • Zobair, who complained in a somewhat truculent letter that Moawiya's slaves had been guilty of trespassing.
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  • Moawiya, disregarding his son Yazid's advice that he should exact condign punishment for Zobair's disrespect, replied in flattering terms, regretting the trespass and resigning both slaves and estate to Zobair.
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  • In reply Zobair protested his loyalty to Moawiya, who thereupon pointed a moral for the instruction of Yazid.
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  • Moawiya has been accused of having poisoned more than one of his adversaries, among them Malik Ashtar, Abdarrahman the son of the great captain Khalid b.
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  • Madaini says that Moawiya was prompted to it, because when he consulted the Syrians about the choice of his son Yazid as his successor, they had proposed Abdarrahman.
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  • The absurdity of this is obvious, for Abdarrahman died in the year 666.1 Others say 2 that Moawiya was afraid lest Abdarrahman should become too popular.
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  • Now, Abdarrahman had not only been a faithful ally of Moawiya in the Wars with Ali, but after the peace devoted all his energy to the Greek war.
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  • It is almost incredible that Moawiya out of petty jealousy would have deprived himself of one of his best men.
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  • The probability is that Abdarrahman was ill when returning from the frontier, that Moawiya sent him his own medical man, the Christian doctor Ibn Othal, and that the rumour arose that the doctor had poisoned him.
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  • Moawiya imprisoned him and let him pay a high ransom, the law not permitting the talio against a Moslem for having killed a Christian.
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  • In fact, since Moawiya did not turn the weapon of assassination against such men as Abdallah b.
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  • These two men were the chief obstacles to Moawiya's plan for securing the Caliphate for his son Yazid.
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  • Moawiya seems to have done his best to gain that approbation, but the details given by the historians are altogether unconvincing.
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  • Moawiya was, in fact, a religious man and a strict disciple of the precepts of Islam.
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  • This is confirmed by the fact that Moawiya II.
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  • As his son Moawiya who succeeded him was certainly adult (the accounts vary between 17 and 23), the latter date seems to be preferable.
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  • Khalid, the brother of Moawiya II., was still a youth and appears to have had no strength of character.
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  • In the east the realm of Islam had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan.
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  • Moawiya, indeed, had struck dinars and dirhems with a Moslem inscription, but his subjects would not accept them as there was no cross upon them.
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  • Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II.
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  • Moawiya, a great-grandson of Ali's brother Ja t far, put himself at the head of a band of Shiites and maulas, made himself master of Kufa and marched upon Hira, where, since Yusuf b.
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  • Jomhur fled to Ibn Moawiya.
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  • Moawiya, who was now at the height of his power.
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  • Ilanzala defeated his army; Ibn Moawiya fled to Khorasan, where he met his death; the chief of the Kharijites, Shaiban Yashkori went to eastern Arabia; Suleiman b.
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  • A grandson of Hisham, Abdarrahman, son of his most beloved son Moawiya, reached Africa and founded in Spain the Omayyad dynasty of Cordova.
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  • At the same time he ordered all his subjects to honour Ali as the best creature of God after the Prophet, and forbade the praise of Moawiya.
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  • He not only caused the mourning for the death of Hosain and other Shiite festivals to be celebrated at Bagdad, but also allowed imprecations against Moawiya and even against Mahomet's wife Ayesha and the caliphs Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman, to be posted up at the doors of the mosques.
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  • His next care was to get rid of the opposition of Moawiya, who had established himself in Syria at the head of a numerous army.
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  • Abu Musa was appointed umpire on the part of Ali, and 'Amr-ibn-el-Ass, a veteran diplomatist, on the part of Moawiya.
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  • Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Moawiya, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, and announced further that he invested Moawiya with the caliphate.
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  • After much indecisive fighting, Ali found his position so unsatisfactory that according to some historians he made an agreement with Moawiya by which each retained his own dominions unmolested.
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  • It chanced, however - according to a legend, the details of which are quite uncertain - that three of the fanatic sect of the Kharijites had made an agreement to assassinate Ali, Moawiya and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful.
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  • After the murder of Ali, the fourth caliph, his successor Moawiya transferred the seat of the Caliphate from Mecca to Damascus and thus commenced the great dynasty of the Omayyads, whose rule extended from the Atlantic to India.
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  • A day's journey beyond Meskene are the remains of Siffin (Roman Sephe), where Moawiya defeated the caliph Ali in 657 (see Caliphate), and opposite this, on the west bank, a picturesque ruin called Karat Ja`ber (Dausara).
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  • For six years (672-677) the Arabs under the caliph Moawiya (see CALIPHATE) besieged Constantinople, but the ravages caused amongst them by the so-called "Greek fire," heavy losses by land and sea, and the inroads of the Christian Mardaites (or Maronites, q.v.) of Mount Lebanon, obliged Moawiya to make peace and agree to pay tribute for thirty years.
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  • Everywhere in the provinces there was agitation against the caliph and his governors, except in Syria, where Othman's cousin, Moawiya, son of Abu Sofian (see below), carried on a wise and strong administration.
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