Marattiaceae sentence example
- In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.
- In Ceratozamia the broad petiole-base is characterized by the presence of two lateral spinous processes, suggesting stipular appendages, comparable, on a reduced scale, with the large stipules of the Marattiaceae among Ferns.
- In structure a cycadean sporangium recalls those of certain ferns (Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae), but in the development of the spores there are certain peculiarities not met with among the Vascular Cryptogams. With the exception of Cycas, the female flowers are also in the form of cones, bearing numerous carpellary scales.
- When the survey is extended to the extinct Ferns of which the fructification is known, many of those from the more ancient rocks are found to group themselves with the existing sub-orders with large sporangia, such as the Marattiaceae, Gleicheniaceae and Schizaeaceae; the Polypodiaceae, on the other hand, do not appear until much later.
- The first includes the Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Schizaeaceae, Gleicheniaceae and Matoniaceae; the second the Loxsomaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Cyatheaceae and the Dennstaedtineae (a group including species placed in the Synopsis Filicum in Dicksonia and Davallia); while the remaining Polypodiaceae constitute the Mixtae.Advertisement
- It is, however, probable that a considerable group of true Ferns, allied to Marattiaceae, existed in Palaeozoic times, side by side with simpler forms. In one respect the fronds of many Palaeozoic Ferns and Pteridosperms were peculiar, namely, in the presence on their rachis, and at the base of their pinnae, of anomalous leaflets, often totally different in form and venation from the ordinary pinnules.
- The reference of these ferns to the family Marattiaceae, so restricted in the recent flora, rests, of course, primarily on evidence drawn from the fructifications.
- The petiole was usually traversed by a single vascular bundle, hippocrepiform in section - a marked point of difference from the more complex petioles of recent Marattiaceae.
- The whole structure bears a general resemblance to that of recent Marattiaceae, though differing in detail.
- On the whole there is thus good evidence for the frequency of Marattiaceae in the Palaeozoic period, though the possibility that the fructifications may really represent the microsporangia of fern-like spermophytes must always be borne in mind.Advertisement
- In a certain number of genera the reference to Marattiaceae is much more doubtful.
- The Marattiaceae are the only recent family of Ferns which can be supposed to have existed in anything like its present form in Palaeozoic times.
- Numerous more or less isolated fern-sporangia occur in the petrified material of the Carboniferous formation; the presence of an annulus is a frequent character among these specimens, while synangic sori are rare; it is thus certain that families remote from the Marattiaceae were abundantly represented during this period.
- Although doubts have lately been cast on the authenticity of Palaeozoic Marattiaceae owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between their fructifications and the pollenbearing organs of Pteridosperms, the anatomical evidence (stem of Psaronius) strongly confirms the opinion that a considerable group of these Ferns existed.
- The roots were at first like those of Marattiaceae but grew in thickness like the roots of Gymnosperms.Advertisement
- Ferns of the genera referred to Marattiaceae are common, but arborescent stems of the Psaronius type are still comparatively rare.
- The abundance of Palaeozoic plants with sporangia and sori of the Marattiaceous type is in striking contrast to the scarcity of Mesozoic ferns which can be reasonably included in the Marattiaceae.