He then came forward as the lieutenant of the Mandi Ibn Tumart.
The Sunnis hold that this mandi has not yet appeared.
The name of mandi is also given by the Shiite Mahommedans to the last of the imams of the house of `Ali.
It was under the name of al-mandi that Mokhtar proclaimed `Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the mandi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther.
The belief in the appearance of the mandi readily lent itself to imposture.
Another great historical movement, headed by a leader who proclaimed himself the mandi (Mahommed ibn Abdallah ibn Tumart), was that of the Almohades.
Concurrently with the claim of Mahommed Ahmed to be the mandi the same title was claimed by, or for, the head of the Senussites, a confraternity powerful in many regions of North Africa.
Engaged from the earliest times in the slave trade, they were among the first, as they were certainly the most fervent, supporters of the mandi when he rose in revolt against the Egyptians (1882).
The mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara, and throughout his rule the tribe held the first place in his favour.
In 1884, in consequence of the revolt of the mandi in the Egyptian Sudan, the khedival garrisons were withdrawn.
south and east of Berbera, and declared himself the mandi.
Gordon (1874 to 1879), but under the Mandi and the Khalifa the slave trade was revived.
This resulted in the dismissal of Suliman Niazi and the appointment of Hicks as commander-in-chief of an expeditionary force to Kordofan with orders to crush the mandi, who in January 1883 had captured El Obeid, the capital of that province.
The Egyptian ministry, however, did not then believe in the power of the mandi, and the expedition started from Khartum on the 9th of September.
Hicks's head was cut off and taken to the mandi.
In the centre facing an open space are the ruins of the tomb of the Mandi and behind is the house in which he lived.
Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 by the Mandi Mahommed Ahmed as his capital and so continued after the fall of Khartum in January 1885.
Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.
Thence four marches, generally over a stony plateau dominated by bare, sterile mountains, brought them to Sana, where they received a cordial welcome from the imam, el Mandi Abbas.
The Hafsites (so called from Abu IIafs, the ancestor of Abu Zakariya, a Berber chieftain who had been one of the intimate disciples of the Almohade mandi) assumed the title of Prince of the Faithful, a dignity which was acknowledged even at Mecca, when in the days of Mostansir, the second Hafsite, the fall of Bagdad left Islam without a titular head.
In September 1882 the town was assaulted by the troops of the mandi, who, being repulsed, laid siege to the place, which capitulated on the 17th of January 1883.
The town remained in the possession of Egypt until 1885, when the garrison was withdrawn in consequence of the rising of the Mandi in the Sudan.
Khalid was the vizier of the caliph Mandi and tutor of Harlan al-Rashid.
In 1872 Munzinger, now in Egyptian service, annexed Asmara to the khedivial dominions, but in 1884, owing to the rise of the mandi,Egypt evacuated her Abyssinian provinces and Asmara was chosen by Ras Alula, the representative of the negus Johannes (King John), as his headquarters.
Legitimate commerce, rapidly growing before the revolt of the mandi (r880,was greatly crippled during the continuance of the dervish power, though the town itself never fell into their hands.
But the manifestation of the 7th age is not a Mandi who is yet to come, but the historical person `Ali ibn abu Talib.
It remained under Egyptian rule till 1882 when Mahommed Ahmed, the mandi, raised the country to revolt.
The Baggara of Kordofan from that time onward were the chief supporters of the mandi, and his successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara.
The Tawahhid (The Unity of God), said to have been written in Moroccan Berber and believed to be the oldest African work in existence, except Egyptian and Ethiopic, was the work of the Muwahhadi leader, Ibn Tumart the Mandi, at a time when the officials of the Kairawan mosque were dismissed because they could not speak Berber.
An Egyptian garrison remained at Keren in the Bogos country until 1884, when in consequence of the revolt of the Mandi it was withdrawn, Bogos being occupied by Abyssinia on the 12th of September of that year.
He claimed that he was commissioned by Ali's son, Mahommed ibn al-Hanafiya, who after the death of Hosain was recognized by the Shiites as their Mandi.
al-Hanafiya, Mandi of the Shiites; and that of the Kharijites, who were at that time under the command of Najda b.
As soon as the time was ripe - and that time could not be far off - He would send a saviour out of the house of the Prophet, the Mandi, who would restore Islam to its original purity.
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
But Abu Jahm, on the instructions of Abu Moslim, declared to the chief officers of the Khorasanian army that the Mandi was in their midst, and brought them to Abu`1-Abbas, to whom they swore allegiance.
Kathir, who had been the head of the propaganda in Khorasan, and had also expected that the Mandi would belong to the house of Ali.
Hasan, whom they called the Mandi and the "pure soul," and Mansur had been among those who pledged themselves to him by oath.
Reign of Mandi.
In 776 Mandi constrained him for a large bribe to renounce his right of succession in favour of his sons, Musa and Harun.
Mandi, therefore, could afford to be munificent, and in order to make his accession doubly welcome to his subjects, he began by granting a general amnesty to political prisoners.
The provincial governors in whom his father had placed confidence, Mandi superseded by creatures of his own.
The promises made to them during the war against the Omayyads had not been fulfilled, and the new Mandi did not answer at all to their ideal.
In the following year, Mandi was menaced by a far more dangerous revolt, led by a sectary, known generally as Mokanna, or "the veiled one," because he always appeared in public wearing a mask.
His head was cut off and sent to Mandi in the year 163.
Mandi had been scarcely a year on the throne when he resolved to accomplish the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Mandi caused the house to be entirely stripped and anointed with perfumes, and covered the walls again with a single cloth of great richness.
From Mecca Mandi went to Medina, where he caused the mosque to be enlarged, and where a similar distribution of gifts took place.
At first the armies of Mandi were not successful.
Qahtaba made a victorious raid as far as Adhruliya (Dorylaeum); it was on his proposition that Mandi resolved on building the frontier town called Iladath (Adata), which became an outpost.
In consequence of this feat, Mandi made Harun governor of the whole western part of the empire, including Azerbaijan and Armenia.
This brilliant success so increased Mandi's affection for Harun that he appointed him successor-designate after Musa and named him al-Rashid (" the follower of the right cause").
Musa, informed of his father's intentions, refused to obey this order, and Mandi determined to march in person against him.
The reign of Mandi was a time of great prosperity.
- On the death of Mandi, Harun, following the advice of Yahya, b.
Khalid, sent the insignia of the Caliphate, with letters of condolence and congratulation, to Musa in Jorjan, and brought the army which had accompanied Mandi peacefully back from Media to Bagdad.
Ja`far, surnamed al-Kazim, who enjoyed great consideration at Medina, and had already been arrested and released again by Mandi.
Sahl, called by them the Majuzi ("the Zoroastrian"), who had chosen Madain for his residence, and put at their head Mansur, a son of Mandi, who refused to assume the title of caliph, but consented to be Mamun's vicegerent instead of Hasan b.
817), under pretence of putting an end to the continual revolts of the partisans of Ali, and acting on the advice of his prime minister Fadl, he publicly designated as his successor in the Caliphate Ali ar-Rida, a son of that Musa al-Kazim who perished in the prison of Mandi, a direct descendant of Hosain, the son of Ali, and proscribed black, the colour of the Abbasids, in favour of that of the house of Ali, green.
Musa, declared Mamun deposed, and elected his uncle, Ibrahim, son of Mandi, to the Caliphate.'
In the same year the real chief of the sect, whose abode had been discovered by the caliph, fled from Salamia in Syria, where he lived, to Africa, and hid himself at Sijilmasa (in Tafilalt) in the far west, whence he reappeared ten years later at Kairawan as the Mandi, the first caliph of the Fatimites.4 Motadid died in Rabia II.
Mahommed Ahmad (the Sudanese mandi) proclaimed a jihad in 1882.
Nearly every building in Khartum was destroyed by the Mandists and the city abandoned in favour of Omdurman, which place remained the headquarters of the mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, till September 1898, when it was taken by the Anglo-Egyptian forces under General (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, and the seat of government again transferred to Khartum.
See the letter of the caliph Mandi on the subject; Wustenfeld, Chron.
colonnades, was the caliph Mandi, who spent enormous sums in bringing costly pillars from Egypt and Syria.
Subsequent repairs and additions, extending down to Turkish times, have left little of Mandi's work untouched, though a few of the pillars probably date from his days.
THE Anglo-Egyptian Sudan The region which before the revolt of the Arabized tribes under the Mandi Mahommed Ahmed in 1881-84 was known as the Egyptian Sudan has, since its reconquest by the Anglo-Egyptian ex editions of 18969 8, been Area.
From the Egyptian Conquest to the Rise of the Mandi.
At this period (1880-1882) schemes for the reorganization and better administration of the Sudan were elaborated on paper, but the revolt in Egypt under Arabi (see Egypt: History) and the appearance in the Sudan of a Mandi prevented these schemes from being put into s Up to 1877, when the work was abandoned, some 50 m.
The Baggara perceived in this Mandi one who could be used to shake off Egyptian rule, and their adhesion to him first gave importance to his " mission."
The first armed conflict between the Egyptian troops and the Mandi's followers occurred in August 1881.
In June 1882 Hicks the Mandi gained his first considerable success.
1883 and the annihilation in the November following of an army of over io,000 men commanded by Hicks Pasha (Colonel William Hicks [q.v.] formerly of the Bombay army) made the Mandi undisputed master of Kordofan and Sennar.
To smooth the way for the retreat of the Egyptian garrisons and civilians he issued proclamations announcing that the suppression of the slave trade was abandoned, that the Mandi was sultan of Kordofan, and that the Sudan was independent of Egypt.
It started too late to achieve its object, and on the 25th of January 1885 Khartum was captured by the Mandi and Gordon killed.
In the same month Kassala capitulated, but just as the Mandi had practically completed the destruction of the Egyptian power he died, in this same month of June 1885.
The Mandi had been regarded by his adhe- Khalifa's rents as the only true commander of the faithful, Rule.
He had liberated the Sudanese from the extortions of the Egyptians, but the people soon found that the Mandi's rule was even more oppressive than had been that of their former masters, and after the Mandi's death the situation of the peasantry in particular grew rapidly worse, neither life nor property being safe.
Mahommed Ahmed had, in accordance with the traditions which required the Mandi to have four khalif as (lieutenants), nominated, besides Abdullah, Ali wad Helu, a sheikh of the Degheim and Kenana Arabs, and Mahommed esh Sherif, his son-in-law, as khalifas.
In the country under his dominion the khalifa's government was carried on after the manner of other Mahommedan states, but pilgrimages to the Mandi's tomb at Omdurman were substituted for pilgrimages to Mecca.
The fanaticism with which the Mandi had inspired his followers remained almost unbroken to the end.
To meet these claims an agreement (which has been aptly called the constitutional charter of the Sudan) between Great Britain and Egypt, was signed on the 19th of January 1899, establishing the joint sovereignty of the two states throughout 1 In the autumn of 1903 Mahommed-el-Amin, a native of Tunis, proclaimed himself the Mandi and got together a following in Kordofan.
This book contains translations of letters and proclamations of the Mandi and Khalifa.
Wingate), Ten Years' Captivity in the Mandi's Camp (1882-1892) (1892); Father Paolo Rosignoli, I miei dodici anni di prigionia in mezzo ai dervice del Sudan (Mondovi, 1898); C. Neufeldt, A Prisoner of the Khaleefa (1899).
Sudanese tyrant, known as "the Mandi," was born in Dongola.
In the November following Hicks Pasha's force of io,000 men was destroyed at Kashgil, and in the same year the mandi's lieutenant, Osman Digna, raised the tribes in the eastern Sudan, and besieged Sinkat and Tokar, near Suakin, routing General Valentine Baker's force of 2500 men at El Teb in February 1884.
It need only be added that General Gordon was besieged at Khartum by the mandi and was killed there when the town was captured by the mandists on the 25th-26th of January 1885.
The mandi himself died at Omdurman a few months later (June 22, 1885), and was succeeded in power by his khalifa Abdullah.
When he announced his divine mission Mahommed Ahmed adopted the Shi'ite traditions concerning the mandi, and thus put himself in opposition to the sultan of Turkey as the only true commander of the faithful.
To emphasize his position the mandi struck coins in his own name and set himself to suppress all customs introduced by the "Turks."
How far the mandi was the controller of the movement which he started cannot be known, but from the outset of his public career his right-hand man was a Baggara tribesman named Abdullah (the khalifa), who became his successor, and after his flight to Jebel Gedir the mandi was largely dependent for his support on Baggara sheikhs, who gratified one of his leading tastes by giving him numbers of their young women.
In the few months between the fall of Khartum and his death the mandi, relieved from the incessant strain of toil, copied in his private life all the vices of Oriental despots while maintaining in public the austerity he demanded of his followers.
1898) the mandi's tomb was destroyed, his body burnt and the ashes thrown into the Nile (see Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian).
Wingate (1891); Ten Years' Captivity in the Mandi's Camp (1882-1892) from the MS. of Father Joseph Ohrwalder by F.
Both Ohrwalder and Slatin were personally acquainted with the mandi, and their narratives contain much first-hand information.
Wingate prints many translations of the proclamations and correspondence of the mandi.
The emir heartily repudiated the leader of the rising, who claimed to be a Mandi inspired to drive the white man out of the country.
He also wrote Le Mandi depuis les origines de ?Islam jusqu'd nos fours (1885); Les Origines de la poesie persane (1888); Prophetes d'Israel (1892), and other books on topics connected with the east, and from 1883 onwards drew up the annual reports of the Societe Asiatique.
The fact that justice and firmness were succeeded by injustice and weakness tended naturally to the outbreak of revolt, and unfortunately there was a leader ready to head a rebellion - one Mahommed Ahmed, already known for some years as a holy man, who was insulted by an Egyptian official, and retiring with some followers to the island of Abba on the White Nile, proclaimed himself as the mandi, a successor of the prophet.
Gordon at once commenced the task of sending the women and children and the sick and wounded to Egypt, and about two thousand five hundred had been removed before the mandi's forces closed upon Khartum.
Wavering tribes went over to the mandi.
The attack was made at a point in the fortifications where the rampart and ditch had been destroyed by the rising of the Nile, and when the mandi's troops entered the soldiers were too weak to make any effectual resistance.
Its growth was rapid, the Khalifa (who succeeded the Mandi) compelling large numbers of disaffected tribesmen to live in the town under the eye of his soldiery.
Mention should also be made of an Arabic history of the Babis (unsympathetic but well-informed) written by a Persian, Mirth Muhammad Mandi Khan, Za'imu'd-Duwla, printed in Cairo in A.H.
At a later period, the Abbasid caliph Mandi had the names of Ziyad and his descendants struck off the rolls of the Koreish; but, after his death, the persons concerned gained over the chief of the rolls office, and had their names replaced in the lists (see Tabari iii.
IIarith put himself at the head of all the malcontents, and raised the black flag, in compliance with a Sibylline prophecy, holding that the man with the black flag (the Prophet's flag) would put an end to the tyranny, and be the precursor of the Mandi.
Venality and the extortion of the tax-gatherer flourished anew after the departure of Gordon, while the feebleness of his successors inspired in the Baggara a contempt for the authority which prohibited them pursuing their most lucrative traffic. When Mahommed Ahmed (q.v.), a Dongolese, proclaimed himself the long-looked-for Mandi (guide) of Islam, he found most of his original followers among the grossly superstitious villagers of Kordofan, to whom he preached universal equality and a community of goods, while denouncing the Turks 2 as unworthy Moslems on whom God would execute judgment.
He travelled secretly through Kordofan, where (with ample justification) he denounced to the villagers the extortion of the tax-gatherer and told of the coming of the mandi who should deliver them from the oppressor.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.