M-2 sentence example
- Secondly, as to the inflections, the process is a similar one; it can be shown that the inflections are the intersections of the curve by a derivative curve called (after Ludwig Otto Hesse who first considered it) the Hessian, defined geometrically as the locus of a point such that its conic polar (§ 8 below) in regard to the curve breaks up into a pair of lines, and which has an equation H = o, where H is the determinant formed with the second differential coefficients of u in regard to the variables (x, y, z); H= o is thus a curve of the order 3 (m - 2), and the number of inflections is =3m(m-2).
- Thirdly, for the double tangents; the points of contact of these are obtained as the intersections of the curve by a curve II = o, which has not as yet been geometrically defined, but which is found analytically to be of the order (m-2) (m 2 -9); the number of intersections is thus = m(rn - 2) (m 2 - 9); but if the given curve has a node then there is a diminution =4(m2 - m-6), and if it has a cusp then there is a diminution =6(m2 - m-6), where, however, it is to be noticed that the factor (m2 - m-6) is in the case of a curve having only a node or only a cusp the number of the tangents which can be drawn from the node or cusp to the curve, and is used as denoting the number of these tangents, and ceases to be the correct expression if the number of nodes and cusps is greater than unity.
- We have thus finally an expression for = m (m-2) (m2-9) - &c.; or dividing the whole by 2, we have the expression for given by the third of Pliicker's equations.
- Imagine a curve of order m, deficiency D, and let the corresponding points P, P' be such that the line joining them passes through a given point 0; this is an (m - m-1) correspondence, and the value of k is=1, hence the number of united points is =2m-2+2D; the united points are the points of contact of the tangents from 0 and (as special solutions) the cusps, and we have thus the relation or, writing D=2(m - i)(m-2) - S - K, this is n=m(m - i)-23-3K, which is right.