Leibnitz sentence example

leibnitz
  • the monadology of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • This would lead to the view of Leibnitz, that the world consists of monads, self-sufficient beings, leading an inner life.
    0
    0
  • But this idea involves the further conception of Leibnitz, that of a pre-established harmony, by which the Creator has taken care to arrange the life of each monad, so that it agrees with that of all others.
    0
    0
  • By understanding and combining what was great and valuable in those divided and scattered endeavours, he became the true successor of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • She read widely though unsystematically, studying philosophy in Aristotle, Leibnitz, Locke and Condillac, and feeding her imagination with Rene and Childe Harold.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
    0
    0
  • In1859-1860Foucher de Careil published in two parts some unedited writings of Descartes from copies taken by Leibnitz from the original papers.
    0
    0
  • Meyer, Leibnitz and Baumgarten (1874); J.
    0
    0
  • Schmidt, Leibnitz and Baumgarten (Halle, 1875); and article Aesthetics.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, in accord with the distinctive principle of his philosophy, affirmed the absolute independence of mind and body as distinct monads, the parallelism of their functions in life being due to the pre-established harmony.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile monism (Hegel) and individualism (Herbart) by means of theism (Leibnitz).
    0
    0
  • In his conception of finite personality he recurs to something like the monadism of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • by Locke, Leibnitz and Wolff.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • The more Spinozistic side of Leibnitz's thought - God as Monad of Monads - is a theistic postulate if hardly a theistic proof.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The free will which Leibnitz teaches is not libertarian but determinist.
    0
    0
  • In his Theodicy Leibnitz argues, like not a few predecessors, that this universe must be regarded as the best of all possible universes.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz's philosophy has no answer for us.
    0
    0
  • He is a pure scholastic. The great thoughts of his master - or perhaps indeed rather Leibnitz's secondary thoughts - are dried and pressed by him, labelled and catalogued.
    0
    0
  • Samuel Clarke, who defended Newton's view of the world against Leibnitz's strictures, is perhaps chiefly interesting to.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • delegated freedom to human wills; and there follows a theodicy, repeating Leibnitz in more modern form.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz).
    0
    0
  • Spinoza: the Spinozistic affinities of Leibnitz are not so marked as Lotze's).
    0
    0
  • - In Leibnitz we find, if not a doctrine of evolution in the strict sense, a theory of the world which is curiously related to the modern doctrine.
    0
    0
  • Turning now to Leibnitz's conception of the world as a process, we see first that he supplies, in his notion of the underlying reality as force which is represented as spiritual (quelque chose d'analogique au sentiment et a Tappan), both a mechanical and a teleological explanation of its order.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • More than this, Leibnitz supposes that the activity of the monads takes the form of a self-evolution.
    0
    0
  • Lewes points out that Leibnitz is inconsistent in his account of the intelligence of man in relation to that of lower animals, since when answering Locke he no longer regards these as differing in degree only.
    0
    0
  • It is probable that Leibnitz's notion of time and space, which approaches Kant's theory, led him to attach but little importance to the successive order of the world.
    0
    0
  • Yet Leibnitz prepared the way for a new conception of organic evolution.
    0
    0
  • - Of Leibnitz's immediate followers we may mention Lessing, who in his Education of the Human Race brought out the truth of the process of gradual development underlying: human history, even though he expressed this in a form inconsistent with the idea of a spontaneous evolution.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
    0
    0
  • Kant, like Leibnitz, seeks to reconcile the mechanical and teleological views of nature, only he assigns to these different spheres.
    0
    0
  • 4 While 2 Both Lewes and du Bois Reymond have brought out the points of contact between Leibnitz's theory of monads and modern biological speculations (Hist.
    0
    0
  • as conditioned in time by lower forms. In this respect it resembles Leibnitz's idea of the world as a development; the idea of evolution is in each case a metaphysical as distinguished from a scientific one.
    0
    0
  • 3 Leibnitz's doctrine of continuity necessarily led him in the same direction; and, of the infinite multitude of monads with which he peopled the world, each is supposed to be the focus of an endless process of evolution and involution.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Leibnitz devotes an introductory chapter in his Theodicee, 1710 (as against Pierre Bayle), to faith and reason.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz has to supplement rather than correct Locke on this point.
    0
    0
  • (c) Theodicy - the tradition of Leibnitz is preserved (on libertarian lines) by Martineau (A Study of Religion, 1883).
    0
    0
  • Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • In connexion with the Monumenta Pertz also began the publication of a selection of sources in octavo form, the Scriptores rerum germanicarum in usum scholarum; among his other literary labours may be mentioned an edition of the Gesammelte Werke of Leibnitz, and a life of Stein.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • He also devoted considerable attention to the German languages, and his researches in this direction attracted the favourable notice of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie seit Leibnitz (1873).
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz (1646-1716); and by G.
    0
    0
  • Even Leibnitz,' who initiated a more modern point of view, follows the tradition in thus confining the scope of mathematics properly so called, while apparently conceiving it as a department of a yet wider science of reasoning.
    0
    0
  • La Logique de Leibnitz, ch.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The next period of advance stretches from the Renaissance to Newton and Leibnitz at the end of the 17th century.
    0
    0
  • During this period logarithms were invented, trigonometry and algebra developed, analytical geometry invented, dynamics put upon a sound basis, and the period closed with the magnificent invention of (or at least the perfecting of) the differential calculus by Newton and Leibnitz and the discovery of gravitation.
    0
    0
  • The founder of the modern point of view, explained in this article, was Leibnitz, who, however, was so far in advance of contemporary thought that his ideas remained neglected and undeveloped until recently; cf.
    0
    0
  • Opuscules et fragments inedits de Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • La Logique de Leibnitz, already referred to.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • For the modern authors who have rediscovered and improved upon the position of Leibnitz, cf.
    0
    0
  • The discoveries of Johann Kepler and Bonaventura Cavalieri were the foundation upon which Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz erected that wonderful edifice, the Infinitesimal Calculus.
    0
    0
  • The germs of the theory of determinants are to be found in the works of Leibnitz; Etienne Bezout utilized them in 1764 for expressing the result obtained by the process of elimination known by his name, and since restated by Arthur Cayley.
    0
    0
  • Hoffmann's" system "was apparently intended to reconcile the opposing" spiritual "and" materialistic "views of nature, and is thought to have been much influenced by the philosophy of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • These curves attracted much attention and were discussed by John Bernoulli, Leibnitz, Huygens, David Gregory and others.
    0
    0
  • Taylor was elected a fellow of the Royal Society early in 1712, sat in the same year on the committee for adjudicating the claims of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz, and acted as secretary to the society from the 13th of January 1714 to the 21st of October 1718.
    0
    0
  • We shall now briefly describe Comte's principal conceptions in sociology, his position in respect to which is held by himself, and by others, to raise him to the level of Descartes or Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • To Kant's lectures and conversations he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau.
    0
    0
  • The Ideen shows us that Herder is an evolutionist after the manner of Leibnitz, and not after that of more modern evolutionists.
    0
    0
  • Among the contributors to subsequent numbers were Leibnitz, Seckendorf and Cellarius.
    0
    0
  • Eccard and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, although Newton had discovered it some years previously.
    0
    0
  • No sooner had the Characteristics appeared than they were welcomed, in terms of warm commendation, by Le Clerc and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Hermann Hettner says that not only Leibnitz, Voltaire and Diderot, but Lessing, Mendelssohn, Wieland and Herder, drew the most stimulating nutriment from Shaftesbury.
    0
    0
  • Jacques Bernoulli cannot be strictly called an independent discoverer; but, from his extensive and successful application of the calculus and other mathematical methods, he is deserving of a place by the side of Newton and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • As an additional claim to remembrance, he was the first to solve Leibnitz's problem of the isochronous curve (Acta Eruditorum, 1690).
    0
    0
  • He proposed the problem of the catenary or curve formed by a chain suspended by its two extremities, accepted Leibnitz's construction of the curve and solved more complicated problems relating to it.
    0
    0
  • In 1701 he published also the demonstration of his solution, which was accepted by the marquis de l'Hopital and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • He and his brother Jean were the first two foreign associates of the Academy of Sciences of Paris; and, at the request of Leibnitz, they were both received as members of the academy of Berlin.
    0
    0
  • Through the influence of Leibnitz he received from the king of Prussia a gold medal for his supposed discoveries; but Nicolaus Hartsoeker and some of the French academicians disputed the fact.
    0
    0
  • He was as keen in his resentments as he was ardent in his friendships; fondly attached to his family, he yet disliked a deserving son; he gave full praise to Leibnitz and Leonhard Euler, yet was blind to the excellence of Sir Isaac Newton.
    0
    0
  • 4to; his interesting correspondence with Leibnitz appeared under the title of Gul.
    0
    0
  • Crusius first came into notice as an opponent of the philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolff from the standpoint of religious orthodoxy.
    0
    0
  • and his claim to Hanover, including the Offizieller Bericht fiber die Kriegsereignisse zwischen Hannover and Preussen im Juni 1866 (Vienna, 1867), and he edited the works of Leibnitz in eleven volumes (1861-1884).
    0
    0
  • Since then many have held that Descartes, Spinoza and Leibnitz were indebted to him for their main principles.
    0
    0
  • " Franklin's reputation," wrote John Adams with characteristic extravagance, " was more universal than that of Leibnitz or Newton, Frederick or Voltaire; and his character more esteemed and beloved than all of them..
    0
    0
  • In the adjacent gardens an open rotunda encloses a marble bust of the philosopher Leibnitz, and near it is a monument to General Count von Alten, the commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo.
    0
    0
  • Among the other churches the most noticeable are the Neustadterkirche, with a graceful shrine containing the tomb of Leibnitz, the Kreuzkirche, built about 1300, with a curious steeple, and the Aegidienkirche among ancient: edifices, and among modern ones the Christuskirche, a gift of King George V., the Lukaskirche, the Lutherkirche, and the Roman Catholic church of St Mary, with a tower 300 ft.
    0
    0
  • The philosopher Leibnitz died there in 1716.
    0
    0
  • empiricism in the metaphysical system of Leibnitz, whose theory of self-determined monads can be understood only when taken in the light of the assertion of the rights of the subject against the substance of Spinoza and the atoms of the materialist.
    0
    0
  • But Leibnitz also anticipated Kant in seeking to correct the empirical point of view of the English philosophers.
    0
    0
  • But Leibnitz's conception of the priority of spirit had too little foundation, and the different elements he sought to combine were too loosely related to one another to stand the strain of the two forces of empiricism and materialism that were opposed to his idealism.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz's principle of the " nisi intellectus ipse " was expanded by him into a demon stration the completest yet effected by philosophy of the part played by the subject not merely in the manipulation of the material of experience but in the actual constitution of the object that is known.
    0
    0
  • Among the theories prevalent in the middle ages was one that mankind formed a unity, with the pope and the emperor at the head of it: the universal Church and the universal emperor ruled the world (Rehm, Geschichte der Rechtswissenschaft, p. 198.) Even to Leibnitz, writing in the 17th century, it seemed that "totam Christianitatem unam velut Rempublicam componere, in qua Caesari auctoritas aliqua competit" (Opera, 4.330).
    0
    0
  • "Suprematum illi tribuo qui non tantum domi subditos manu militari regit, sed et qui exercitum extra fines ducere et armis, foederibus, legationibus, ac caeteris juris gentium functionibus aliquid momenti ad rerum Europae generalium summam conferre potest" (Leibnitz, Opera, 4.333).
    0
    0
  • Territorial sovereignty is thus defined by Leibnitz: "Superioritatem territorialem in summo subditos coercendi jure consistere" (Opera, 4.35 8.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, with the middle ages in view, divides the attributes or faculties into two classes: regalia majora and regalia minora.
    0
    0
  • In philosophy he followed Reinhard in ethics and the monadology of Leibnitz, though he was also influenced by Kant.
    0
    0
  • Meantime, he had gained a high literary reputation by his Eloges of Charles V.,, Lacaille, Moliere, Corneille and Leibnitz, which were issued in a collected form in 1770 and 1790; he was admitted to the French Academy (February 26, 1784), and to the Academie des Inscriptions in 1785, when Fontenelle's simultaneous membership of all three Academies was renewed in him.
    0
    0
  • Latin was also used in works on science and philosophy, such as Sir Isaac Newton's Principia (1687), and many of the works of Leibnitz (1646-1705).
    0
    0
  • A modern education is also the aim of the general introduction to the nova methodus of Leibnitz, where the study of Greek is recommended solely for the sake of the Greek Testament (1666).
    0
    0
  • On the other hand monadology (Leibnitz) has also been termed animistic. The name is most commonly applied to vitalism, a view mainly associated with G.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, and the exact dates of discovery are a little uncertain.
    0
    0
  • - The genuineness of the Aristotelian works, as Leibnitz truly said (De Stilo Phil.
    0
    0
  • This sceptical conclusion, the contrary of that drawn by Leibnitz from the harmony of thought and style pervading the works, shows us that the Homeric question has been followed by the Aristotelian question.
    0
    0
  • It was Aristotle himself then who wrote these works, whether he arranged them or not; and if he wrote the incomplete works, then a fortiori he wrote the completed works except those which are proved spurious, and practically consummated the Aristotelian system, which, as Leibnitz said, by its unity of thought and style evinces its own genuineness and individuality.
    0
    0
  • There is no sign of any intimate knowledge of ancient or scholastic thought; to the doctrines of Spinoza, Leibnitz, Malebranche, Norris, the attitude is one of indifference or lack of appreciation, but the influence of Descartes and specially of Locke is evident throughout.
    0
    0
  • Descartes to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
    0
    0
  • Up to this point, then, Leibnitz opened one of the chief avenues to metaphysical idealism, the resolution of the material into the immaterial, the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
    0
    0
  • According to this alternative, then, there is nothing but mental monads and mental phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical idealist.
    0
    0
  • According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.
    0
    0
  • We cannot, therefore, agree with many recent idealists who regard Leibnitz as one of themselves, though it is true that, when stripped of its realism, his metaphysics easily passed into the metaphysical idealisms of Lotze and of Fechner.
    0
    0
  • It is true, also, that on its idealistic side the philosophy of Leibnitz is the source of many current views of panpsychism, of psychophysical parallelism as well as of the.
    0
    0
  • - Lastly, in Germany, partly influenced by Leibnitz and partly roused by Hume, Kant elaborated his transcendental or critical idealism, which if not, as he thought, the prolegomena to all future metaphysics, is still the starting-point of most metaphysical idealists.
    0
    0
  • The analysis of bodies into immaterial elements by Leibnitz incited Lotze.
    0
    0
  • This abuse of language brought him back to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • But, whereas Leibnitz imputed unconscious perception as well as unconscious appetition to monads, Schopenhauer supposed unconscious will to arise without perception, without feeling, without ideas, and to be the cause of ideas only in us.
    0
    0
  • Indeed, Fichte had previously characterized the life of the Absolute by reason and will without consciousness; and, before Fichte, Leibnitz had asserted that the elements of Nature are monads with unconscious perception and appetition.
    0
    0
  • Like Leibnitz, he proceeds from the fact that our perceptions are sometimes conscious, sometimes unconscious, to the inconsequent conclusion, that there are beings with nothing but unconscious perceptions; and by a similar non sequitur, because there is the idea of an end in will, he argues that there must be an unconscious idea of an end in instinctive, in reflex, in all action.
    0
    0
  • In answering this question Lotze regarded Leibnitz as his guide.
    0
    0
  • Indeed, from the time of Leibnitz such attempts either to analyse or to construct matter had become a fashion.
    0
    0
  • Lotze agreed with Leibnitz that the things which cause phenomena are immaterial elements, but added that they are not simple substances, self-acting, as Leibnitz thought, or preserving themselves against disturbance, as Herbart thought, but are interacting modifications of the one substance of God.
    0
    0
  • In the first place, he resolved the doubt of Leibnitz about bodies by deciding entirely against his realistic alternative that an organic body is a substantia realizans phaenomena, and for his idealistic alternative that every body is a phenomenon and not a substance at all.
    0
    0
  • This brought him to another difference from Leibnitz as well as from Newton.
    0
    0
  • According to Leibnitz, while each immaterial element is a monadic substance and self-acting secondary cause, God is the primary cause of all.
    0
    0
  • Lotze's metaphysics is thus distinguished from the theism of Newton and Leibnitz by its pantheism, and from the pantheism of Spinoza by its idealism.
    0
    0
  • Thus his pantheistic is also a teleological idealism, which in its emphasis on free activity and moral order recalls Leibnitz and Fichte, but in its emphasis on the infinity of God has more affinity to Spinoza, Schelling and Hegel.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz thus influenced Fechner, as in other ways he influenced Lotze.
    0
    0
  • Both, however, used this influence freely; and, whereas Lotze used the Leibnitzian argument from indivisibility to deduce indivisible elements and souls, Fechner used the Leibnitzian hypotheses of universal perception and parallelism of motions and perceptions, in the light of the .Schellingian identification of physical and psychical, to evolve a world-view (Weltansicht) containing something which was neither Leibnitz nor Schelling.
    0
    0
  • In this doctrine of universal animation he was like Leibnitz, yet very different.
    0
    0
  • Here, again, he went much further than Leibnitz, but along with Schelling, in identifying the physical and the psychical as outer and inner sides of the same process, in which the inner is the real and the outer the apparent.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, in the Nouveaux Essais, ii.
    0
    0
  • Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle; Telesio, Bruno and Campanella; Leibnitz; the idealists, Schopenhauer and Hartmann, Fechner and Paulsen; and the materialist, Haeckel - all have agreed in according some sort of appetition to Nature.
    0
    0
  • But the idealists are only too glad to get any excuse for denying bodily substances and causes; and, while Leibnitz supplied them with the fancied analysis of material into immaterial elements, and Hume with the reduction of bodies to assemblages of sensations, Mach adds the additional argument that bodily forces are not causes at all.
    0
    0
  • In detail, to express this supposed inner will of thinking, he borrows from Leibnitz and Kant the term " apperception," but in a sense of his own.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, by way of distinction from unconscious perception, gave the name " apperception " to consciousness.
    0
    0
  • Not, says Wundt, by association, as Hume said, but by thinking; not, however, by a priori thinking, as Kant said, but by logical thinking, by applying the logical principle of ground and consequent (which Leibnitz had called the principle of sufficient reason) as a causal law to empirical appearances.
    0
    0
  • Clifford (q.v.) was working out the hypothesis of psychophysical parallelism to a conclusion different from that of Lewes, and more allied to that of Leibnitz, the prime originator of all these hypotheses.
    0
    0
  • As a matter of fact, this " mind-stuff " of Clifford is far more like the " petites perceptions " of Leibnitz, from which it is indirectly derived.
    0
    0
  • Nothing can be more curious than the way in which a school of English philosophers, which originally started from Hume, the most sceptical of phenomenalists, thus gradually passed over to Leibnitz and Fechner, the originators of panpsychistic noumenalism.
    0
    0
  • Again, he thinks that substance is activity; differing from both Leibnitz and Lotze herein, and still more in not allowing the existence of the many beyond experience.
    0
    0
  • Saisset in the spiritualistic school, the influence of Descartes began to give way to that of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz has been used both realistically and idealistically in France.
    0
    0
  • Then, agreeing with evolutionism, that things are necessarily determined by forces, but with Leibnitz that body is merely passive,.
    0
    0
  • Here we trace the influence of Leibnitz and Lotze, which is still more marked in La Contingence des lois de la nature (1874), by E.
    0
    0
  • The importance of a study of the changes of the vis viva depending on squares of velocities, or what is now called the "kinetic energy" of a system, was recognized in Newton's time, especially by Leibnitz; and it was perceived (at any rate for special cases) that an increase in this quantity in the course of any motion of the system was otherwise expressible by what we now call the "work" done by the forces.
    0
    0
  • This attitude may be studied in Descartes, Leibnitz and Wolff.
    0
    0
  • As a boy he showed great aptitude for study, and at first devoted himself to theology, but under the influence of Wolff's writings he took up mathematics and philosophy on the lines of Wolff and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • seit Leibnitz, pp. 283 foll., 2 94) .
    0
    0
  • His second wife, Sophie Charlotte (1668-1705), sister of the English king George I., was the friend of Leibnitz and one of the most cultured princesses of the age; she bore him his only son, his successor, King Frederick William I.
    0
    0
  • His chief philosophical works were an edition of the The'odicee of Leibnitz (1874), a monograph on Locke (1878), Devoirs et droits de l'homme (1880), Glissonius utrum Leibnitio de natura substantiae cogitanti quidquam tribuerit (1880)-, De La solidarite morale (4th ed., 1893).
    0
    0
  • We know something of what it contained from a report by Leibnitz, who had seen it in Paris, and from a resume of its results published in 1640 by Pascal himself, under the title Essai pour les coniques.
    0
    0
  • Passing thus through these two centuries we reach the beginning of the 18th century and the work done for German historical scholarship by the philosopher Leibnitz, who sought to do for his own country what Muratori was doing for Italy.
    0
    0
  • But very slight results attended these elaborate schemes, although their failure did not deter Leibnitz from pursuing the same end.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz worked at another collection, the Origines Guelficae, which was completed and issued by his pupils (Hanover, 1750-1780), and also at A nnales imperii occidentis Brunsmicenses, which, although the most valuable collection of the kind yet made, was not published until editedby G.
    0
    0
  • Other collections followed those of Leibnitz, among which may be mentioned the Corpus historicum mcdii aevi of j.
    0
    0
  • Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of his Principia an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when sending him the Commercium Epistolicum, said, "You are well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me."
    0
    0
  • If the philosophy of Spinoza provided the poet with a religion which made individual creeds and dogmas unnecessary and impossible, so Leibnitz's doctrine of predestinism supplied the foundations for his faith in the divine mission of human life.
    0
    0
  • His chief works are a monograph on Aenesidemus the Sceptic (1840); Le Scepticisme: IEnesideme, Pascal, Kant (1845); a translation of Spinoza (1843); Precurseurs et disciples de Descartes (1862); Discours de la philosophie de Leibnitz (1857) - a work which had great influence on the progress of thought in France; Essai de philosophie religieuse (1859); Critique et histoire de la philosophie (1865).
    0
    0
  • In 1715 and 1716 he had a discussion with Leibnitz relative to the principles of natural philosophy and religion, which was at length cut short by the death of his antagonist.
    0
    0
  • The materialism of Hobbes, the pantheism of Spinoza, the empiricism of Locke, the determinism of Leibnitz, Collins' necessitarianism, Dodwell's denial of the natural immortality of the soul, rationalistic attacks on Christianity, and the morality of the sensationalists - all these he opposed with a thorough conviction of the truth of the principles which he advocated.
    0
    0
  • 5 Leibnitz probably owes to him the thought of a calculus of symbols, and the conception of demonstration as essentially a chain of definitions.
    0
    0
  • A fundamental contrast to the school of Bacon and of Locke is afforded by the great systems of reason, owning Cartesian inspira tion, which are identified with the names of Spinoza and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • With Leibnitz, on the other hand, the logical problem holds the foremost place in philosophical inquiry.
    0
    0
  • 2 Russell's Philosophy of Leibnitz, capp. 1-5.
    0
    0
  • propositions express in the last resort the relation of predicate or predicates to a subject, and this Leibnitz holds after considering the case of relational propositions where either term may hold the position of grammatical subject, A = B and the like.
    0
    0
  • For reasons not purely logical Leibnitz declares for the plurality of such subjects.
    0
    0
  • With much that suggests an affirmative answer, Leibnitz gives the negative.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz's treatment of the primary principles among truths of reason as identities, and his examples drawn inter alia from the " first principles " of mathematics, influenced Kant by antagonism.
    0
    0
  • Propositions concerning the possible existence of individuals put Leibnitz to some shifts, and the difficulty accounts for the close connexion established in regard to our actual world between the law of sufficient reason and the doctrine of the final cause.
    0
    0
  • The law, however, is not invalidated by these considerations, and with the degree of emphasis and the special setting that Leibnitz gives the law, it is definitely his own.
    0
    0
  • If we may pass by the doctrine of the Identity of Indiscernibles, which played a part of some importance in subsequent philosophy, and the Law of Continuity, which as Leibnitz represents it is, if not sheer dogma, reached by something very like a fallacy, Gerhardt, vi.
    0
    0
  • all propositions not concerned with the existence of individual facts ultimately analyse out into identities - obviously lend themselves to the design of this algebra of thought, though the mathematician in Leibnitz should have been aware that a significant equation is never an identity.
    0
    0
  • It may be said that among Leibnitz's successors there is no Leibnitzia,n.
    0
    0
  • Wolff's formalism is the bastard outcome of the speculation of Leibnitz, and is related to it as remotely as Scholasticism is to Aristotle.
    0
    0
  • A truer continuator of Leibnitz in the spirit was Herbart.
    0
    0
  • The critical philosophy had indeed made it impossible to hark back to Leibnitz or any other master otherwise than with a difference.
    0
    0
  • The clue to the discovery of transcendental conditions Kant finds in the existence of judgments, most manifest in mathematics and in the pure science of nature, which are certain, yet not trifling, necessary and yet not reducible to identities, synthetic therefore and a priori, and so accounted for neither by Locke nor by Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • This device was never remote from the constructions of writers for whom the teaching of Spinoza and Leibnitz was an integral part of their intellectual equipment, Other modes of correlation, however, find favour also, and in some variety.
    0
    0
  • For at the basis of Herbart's speculation there lies a conception of identity foreign to the thought of Kant with his stress on synthesis, in his thoroughgoing metaphysical use of which Herbart goes back not merely to Wolff but to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • It is no mere coincidence that his treatment of all forms of continuance and even his positive metaphysic of " reals " show affinity to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • It was in the pressing to its extreme consequences of the conception of uncompromising identity which is to be found in Leibnitz, that the contradictions took their rise which Herbart aimed at solving, by the method of relations and his doctrine of the ultimate plurality of " reals," The logic of relations between conceptual units, themselves unaltered by the relation, seems a kind of reflection of his metaphysical method.
    0
    0
  • Harms' posthumously published Geschichte der Logik (1881) (Die Philosophie in ihrer Geschichte, ii.) was completed by the author only so far as Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz the vis viva; the name energy was substituted by T.
    0
    0
  • Spinoza realized the flaw in the division and preferred to postulate behind mind and matter a single substance (unica substantia) while Leibnitz explained the universe as a harmony of spiritual or semispiritual principles.
    0
    0
  • Among other writers, Leibnitz and Huygens give testimony which is the more valuable as being critical.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz speaks of Bacon as " divini ingenii vir," and, like several other German authors, classes him with Campanella; Huygens refers to his " bonnes methodes."
    0
    0
  • In his religious views Renouvier makes a considerable approximation to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • In so doing he is only following the line predicted by Kant' and anticipated by Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • It was as an optician that he was first brought into connexion with Huygens and Leibnitz; and an optical Treatise on the .Rainbow, written by him and long supposed to be lost, was discovered and reprinted by Dr Van Vloten in 1862.
    0
    0
  • His friends came to visit him in his lodgings, as well as others attracted by his reputation - Leibnitz among the rest - and were courteously entertained, but Spinoza preferred not to accept their offers of hospitality.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz also gives a similar description: "The celebrated Jew Spinoza had an olive complexion and something Spanish in his face."
    0
    0
  • Yet Leibnitz and Sir William Hamilton recognize him as the best modern exponent of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle.
    0
    0
  • To this higher manifestation of Pneuma can be traced back the " esprits animaux " of Descartes and Leibnitz, which continue to play so great a part even in Locke.
    0
    0
  • The name of Leibnitz is associated with its foundation, and it was raised to' the rank of a royal academy by Frederick the Great in 1743.
    0
    0
  • After the war Leibnitz began a new epoch, both by his philosophy with its law of continuity in phenomena, and by his systematic attempt to collect sources through an association (1670).
    0
    0
  • But from Leibnitz until the 19th century German national historiography made little progress, - although church historians like Mosheim and Neander stand out among the greatest historians of all time.
    0
    0
  • Muratori (1672-1750), the Italian counterpart of Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • The word was first used by Leibnitz, practically in the sense of the modern Attention, by which an object is apprehended as "not-self" and yet in relation to the self.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, the Bernoullis, Roger Cotes and others - and so assiduously was it studied that it was sometimes named the "Helen of Geometers."
    0
    0
  • The cartesian equation was first given by Wilhelm Gottfried Leibnitz (Ada eruditorum, 1686) in the form y = (2xx 2)-1.
    0
    0
  • If "the idea of humanity," as Kant called it, has ethical perfection at its core, then a universe which is really an organic whole must be ultimately representable as a moral order or a spiritual kingdom such as Leibnitz named, in words borrowed from St Augustine, a city of God.
    0
    0
  • Huygens, in a letter dated the 8th of June 1694, wrote to Leibnitz, " I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton, namely, that he has had an attack of phrenitis, which lasted eighteen months, and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies, and keeping him shut up."
    0
    0
  • To which Leibnitz, in a letter dated the 22nd of June, replied, " I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness, which doubtless must have been very alarming."
    0
    0
  • Newton's admirers in Holland had informed Dr Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Leibnitz's Calculus Di fferentialis.
    0
    0
  • Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by John Bernoulli and Leibnitz deserves mention among his mathematical works.
    0
    0
  • The six months elapsed without any solution being produced; but he received a letter from Leibnitz, stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems," and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next, that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period.
    0
    0
  • Solutions were also obtained from Leibnitz and the Marquis de L'Hopital; and, although that of Newton was anonymous, yet Bernoulli recognized the author in his disguise; " tanquam," says he, " ex ungue leonem."
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710), Hartsoeker, and E.
    0
    0
  • For it was in 1716 that Leibnitz, in a letter to the Abbe Conti, proposed a problem for solution " for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts."
    0
    0
  • 216223): (I) Spinozism is atheism; (2) the Kabbalistic philosophy, in so far as it is philosophy, is nothing but undeveloped or confused Spinozism; (3) the philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolff is not less fatalistic than that of Spinoza, and carries a resolute thinker to the very principles of Spinoza; (4) every demonstrative method ends in fatalism; (5) we can demonstrate only similarities (agreements, truths conditionally necessary), proceeding always in identical propositions; every proof presupposes something already proved, the principle of which is immediately given (Offenbarung, revelation, is the term here employed by Jacobi, as by many later writers, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Much of the responsibility for this injustice rested with Leibnitz, who would never recognize the incontestable greatness of one who was constantly his adversary, and whom he dismissed as "vir parum jurisconsultus et minime philosophus."
    0
    0
  • The conservative and timid Leibnitz was beaten on the battlefield of politics and public law, and the aggressive spirit of Pufendorf aggravated yet more the dispute, and so widened the division.
    0
    0
  • The modern treatment of the problem from Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza and Leibnitz down to Kant is too much inwoven into the metaphysical systems of individual great philoso phers to afford the possibility of detailed treatment in the present article.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz retains this attenuated belief in moral freedom and combines with it a belief in the spontaneity of moral agents in the sense that they possess the power of acting and need no other principle of action save the laws of their own natures.
    0
    0
  • But inasmuch as the agreement between the acts of Leibnitz's monads is due to a divine pre-established harmony, and the theoretical contingency which in the abstract, i.e.
    0
    0
  • as logically possible, can be predicated of their acts, is in practice ion-existent, Leibnitz is in effect a determinist.
    0
    0
  • If, on the other hand, we press Leibnitz's objection, i.e.
    0
    0
  • But no one can tell whether the study of physiological phenomena in general, and of nervous phenomena in particular, will not reveal to us, besides the vis viva or kinetic energy of which Leibnitz spoke, and the potential energy which was a later and necessary adjunct, some new kind of energy which may differ from the other two by rebelling against calculation" (Bergson, Time and Free Will, Eng.
    0
    0
  • So again the controversy that Clarke conducted with Spinoza, and afterwards with Leibnitz, was entirely confined to the metaphysical region.
    0
    0
  • The germ of the theory of determinants is to be found in the writings of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1693), who incidentally discovered certain properties when reducing the eliminant of a system of linear equations.
    0
    0
  • At Berlin Jablonski worked hard to bring about a union between the followers of Luther and those of Calvin; the courts of Berlin, Hanover, Brunswick and Gotha were interested in his scheme, and his principal helper was the philosopher Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • For some years negotiations were carried on with a view to attaining this end, but eventually it was found impossible to surmount the many difficulties in the way; Jablonski and Leibnitz, however, did not cease to believe in the possibility of accomplishing their purpose.
    0
    0
  • Editions of the letters which passed between Jablonski and Leibnitz, relative to the proposed union, were published at Leipzig in 1747 and at Dorpat in 1899.
    0
    0
  • From Leibnitz, Lessing, Fichte, Jacobi and the Romantic school he had imbibed a profound and mystical view of the inner depths of the human personality.
    0
    0
  • Leipzig has some interesting monuments; the Siegesdenkmal, commemorative of the wars of 1866 and 1870, on the market square, statues of Goethe, Leibnitz, Gellert, J.
    0
    0
  • Among the celebrated natives of the town are the philosopher Leibnitz and the composer Wagner.
    0
    0
  • He might exile their persons; but their doctrines, supported by the scientific and philosophic work of Newton and Leibnitz, were to triumph over Church and religion in the 18th century.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz had not~ yet taught that external movement is nothing, and inward spirit everything.
    0
    0
  • Davidson, A new Interpretation of Herbart's Psychology and Educational Theory through the Philosophy of Leibnitz (1906); see also J.
    0
    0
  • The extraordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • The second includes a "Method for the Quadrature of Parabolas," and a treatise "on Maxima and Minima, on Tangents, and on Centres of Gravity," containing the same solutions of a variety of problems as were afterwards incorporated into the more extensive method of fluxions by Newton and Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Ueber eine Entdeckung, nach der alle neue Kritik der reinen Vernunft durch eine dltere entbehrlich gemacht werden soll, " On a Discovery by which all the recent Critique of Pure Reason is superseded by a more ancient" (i.e by Leibnitz's philosophy).
    0
    0
  • Ueber die wirklichen Fortschritte der Metaphysik seit Leibnitz and Wolff, " On the Real Advances of Metaphysics since Leibnitz and Wolff"; and Ueber das Misslingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodicee.
    0
    0
  • In the early essays we find the principles of the current philosophies, those of Leibnitz and English empiricism, applied in various directions to those problems which serve as tests of their truth and completeness; we note the appearance of the difficulties or contradictions which manifest the one-sidedness or imperfection of the principle applied; and we can trace the gradual growth of the new conceptions which were destined, in the completed system, to take the place of the earlier method.
    0
    0
  • Of the two preceding stages of modern philosophy, only the second, that of Locke and Leibnitz, seems to have influenced practically the course of Kant's speculation.
    0
    0
  • The fundamental question for philosophic reflection presented itself to him in the form which it had assumed in the hands of Locke and his successors in England, of Leibnitz and the Leibnitzian school in Germany.
    0
    0
  • The tendency towards what may be technically called subjectivism, a tendency which differentiates the modern from the ancient method of speculation, is expressed in Locke and Leibnitz in a definite and peculiar fashion.
    0
    0
  • This second inquiry is specifically metaphysical in bearing, and the kind of answer furnished to it by Leibnitz on the one hand, by Berkeley on the other, is in fact prescribed or determined beforehand by the fundamental conception of the individualist method with which both begin their investigations.
    0
    0
  • It is true that Leibnitz himself did not work out any complete doctrine of knowledge, but in the hands of his successors the theory took definite shape in the principle that the whole work of cognition is in essence analytical.
    0
    0
  • The year 1765 was marked by the publication of Leibnitz's posthumous Nouveaux Essais, in which his theory of knowledge is more fully stated than in any of his previous tracts.
    0
    0
  • According to Leibnitz, space, the order of coexisting things, resulted from the relations of monads to one another.
    0
    0
  • Kant was anxious to avoid the error of Leibnitz, who had taken sense and understanding to differ in degree only, not in kind; but in avoiding the one error he fell into another of no less importance.
    0
    0
  • This conviction of the emptiness of terms and abstract notions, and of the fulness of individual life, has enabled Lotze to combine in his writings the two courses into which German philosophical thought had been moving since the death of its great founder, Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • We may define these courses by the terms esoteric and exoteric - the former the philosophy of the school, cultivated principally at the universities, trying to systematize everything and reduce all our knowledge to an intelligible principle, losing in this attempt the deeper meaning of Leibnitz's philosophy; the latter the unsystematized philosophy of general culture which we find in the work of the great writers of the classical period, Lessing, Winkelmann, Goethe, Schiller and Herder, all of whom expressed in some degree their indebtedness to Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • There are the central dogmas of logic, metaphysics and physics, from which start the subsequent inquiries of Locke, Leibnitz and Newton.
    0
    0
  • He was a disciple of Leibnitz and Wolff, and was particularly distinguished as having been the first to establish the Theory of the Beautiful as an independent science.
    0
    0
  • The former had written in lucid German an attack on the national neglect of native philosophers (principally Leibnitz), and lent the manuscript to Lessing.
    0
    0
  • In another direction, Leibnitz - and Wolff - give emphasis to the contrast between the necessary and the contingent; with important results for popular philosophy, and indirectly for theism.
    0
    0
  • § 12), where he is arguing in favour of the hypothesis, afterwards elaborated by Leibnitz, of a graduated series of minds (species of spirits) from the Deity down to the lowest animal intelligence.
    0
    0
  • Charles Bonnet met the difficulty of the origin of conscious beings much in the same way as Leibnitz, by the supposition of eternal minute organic bodies to which are attached immortal souls.
    0
    0
  • The chief aim of Leibnitz is no doubt to account for the world in its static aspect as a co-existent whole, to conceive the ultimate reality of things in such a way as to solve the mystery of mind and matter.
    0
    0
  • By placing substantial reality in an infinite number of monads whose essential nature is force or activity, which is conceived as mental (representation), Leibnitz was carried on to the explanation of the successive order of the world.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, in fact, presents to us an infinite system of perfectly distinct though parallel developments, which on their mental side assume the aspect of a scale, not through any mutual action, but solely through the determination of the Deity.
    0
    0
  • Even this idea, however, is incomplete, for Leibnitz fails to explain the physical aspect of development.
    0
    0
  • The modern monistic doctrine, that all material things consist of sentient elements, and that consciousness arises through a combination of these, was a natural transformation of Leibnitz's theory.2 Lessing.
    0
    0
  • The views of Malpighi were warmly welcomed on philosophical grounds by Leibnitz, 4 who found in them a support to his 1 The Exercitationes de generatione animalium, which Dr George Ent extracted from him and published in 1651.
    0
    0
  • Thus an organized individual (tout organise) " is a composite body consisting of the original, or elementary, parts and of the matters which have been associated with them by the aid of nutrition "; so that, if these matters could be extracted from the individual (tout), it would, so to speak, become concentrated in a point, and would thus be restored to its primitive condition of a germ; " just as, by extracting from a bone the calcareous substance which is the source of its hardness, it is reduced to its primitive state of gristle or membrane."2 " Evolution " and " development " are, for Bonnet, synonymous terms; and since by " evolution " he means simply the expansion of that which was invisible into visibility, he was naturally led to the conclusion, at which Leibnitz had arrived by a different line of reasoning, that no such thing as generation, in the proper sense of the word exists in nature.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, Systeme nouveau de la nature (1695).
    0
    0
  • In the Protogaea, xxvi., Leibnitz distinctly suggests the mutability of species " Alii mirantur in saxis passim species videri quas vel in orbe cognito, vel saltem in vicinis locis frustra quaeras.
    0
    0
  • The accurate investigation of the lowest forms of animal life, commenced by Leeuwenhoek and Swammerdam, and continued by the remarkable labours of Reaumur, Abraham Trembley, Bonnet, and a host of other observers in the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, drew the attention of biologists to the gradation in the complexity of organization which is presented by living beings, and culminated in the doctrine of the echelle des titres, so powerfully and clearly stated by Bonnet, and, before him, adumbrated by Locke and by Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • Not in a libertarian sense; Leibnitz.
    0
    0
  • In Leibnitz we find a philosophic or religious optimism, which saw in the universe the perfect work of a God who from all possibilities selected the .best.
    0
    0
  • It is curious that Leibnitz, who originally regarded the Colloquium as the work of a professed enemy of Christianity, subsequently described it as a most valuable production (cf.
    0
    0
  • If this view of his optimism be correct, Shaftesbury, as Mill says of Leibnitz, must be regarded as maintaining, not that this is the best of all imaginable but only of all possible worlds.
    0
    0
  • He also rejected the optimism of Leibnitz and Hegel, and placed the most irrational of wills at the base of the worst possible of worlds (see further Schopenhauer).
    0
    0
  • The truth of Nature is force; the truth of will is rational desire; the truth of life is neither the optimism of Leibnitz and Hegel, nor the pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but the moderatism of Aristotle.
    0
    0
  • Besides, he was deeply impressed by the fact of man's personality and by the problem of his personal immortality, which brought him back through Schelling to Leibnitz, whose Monadologie throughout maintains the plurality of monadic souls and the omnipresence of perception, sketches in a few sections (§§ 23, 78-81) a panpsychic parallelism, though without identity, between bodily motions and psychic perceptions, and, what is most remarkable, already uses the conservation of energy to argue that physical energy pursues its course in bodies without interacting with souls ., and that motions produce motions, perceptions produce perceptions.
    0
    0
  • Whereas Leibnitz confined a large area of the world to wholly unconscious perceptions, and therefore preferred to call the souls of inorganic beings " Entelechies," Fechner extended consciousness to the whole world; and accordingly, whereas Leibnitz believed in a supramundane Creator, " au dessus du Monde " and " dans le Monde," Fechner, in the spirit of Schelling, identified God with the soul of the world.
    0
    0
  • In this panpsychistic parallelism he was again like Leibnitz, and he developed his predecessor's view, that the conservation of energy prevents interaction, into the supposition that alongside the physical there is a parallel psychical conservation of energy.
    0
    0
  • Under the influence of Leibnitz, Boscovich, Kant and Herbart, he supposed that bodies are divisible into punctual atoms, which are not bodies, but centres of forces of attraction and repulsion; that impenetrability is a result of repulsive force; and that force itself is only law - taking as an instance that Newtonian force of attraction whose process we do not understand, and neglecting that Newtonian force of pressure and impact whose process we do understand from the collision of bodies already extended and resisting.
    0
    0
  • The three most vital idealisms of this kind at the moment are the panpneumatism of Hartmann, combining Hegel with Schopenhauer; the panteleologism of Lotze, reviving Leibnitz; and the panpsychism of Paulsen, continuing Fechner, but with the addition of an epistemology combining Kant with Schopenhauer.
    0
    0
  • He agrees with Leibnitz in the analysis of the material into the immaterial, but with Lotze in holding that the many immaterial elements coexist and interact.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz (see Infinitesimal Calculus).
    0
    0
  • we have as Leibnitz's remaining legacy to later logicians the conception of Characteristica Universalis and Ars Combinatoria, a universal denoting by symbols and a calculus working by substitutions and the like.
    0
    0
  • Leibnitz, fresh from the battle of the calculus in the mathematical field, and with his conception of logic, at least in some of its aspects, as a generalized mathematic,' found a fruitful inspiration, harmonizing well with his own metaphysic, in Bacon's alphabet of nature.
    0
    0
  • The first to publish a general collection of treaties was Leibnitz, whose Codex juris gentium, containing documents from 1097 to 5497, " ea quae sola inter liberos populos legum sunt loco " appeared in 1693, and was followed in 1700 by the Mantissa.
    0
    0
  • This blind dualism found its natural consequence in the revolt of the Renaissance thinkers, Bruno and Paracelsus, who asserted the unity of mind and matter in all existence and were the precursors of the more intelligent monism of Leibnitz and the scientific metaphysics of his successors.
    0
    0
  • In 1697 John Bernoulli proposed the famous problem of the brachistochrone (see Mechanics), and it was proved by Leibnitz, Newton and several others that the cycloid was the required curve.
    0
    0
  • The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics, from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted, is thus stated in the advertisement: " In a letter written to M Leibnitz in the year 1679, and published by Dr Wallis, I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections, or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared.
    0
    0
  • In February 1700 Leibnitz writes of Newton, " J'ai appris aussi (je ne sgai on) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle edition de ses principes de la nature."
    0
    0