Lankester sentence example

lankester
  • PTEROBRANCHIA, a zoological group established by Ray Lankester in 1877.
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  • The following are some of the forms Cuvier, Lankester's Treatise on of cormidia that occur: Zoology.
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  • Agassiz, Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • in all other Siphonophores, the ancestral form was a Siphonula, a bilaterally symmetrical Anthomedusa After Haeckel, from Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • Haeckel, Lankester's FIG.
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  • Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
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  • " - Interview with Metchnikoff in Sir Ray Lankester's Science from an Easy Chair, p. 43 2 In 1767, when Catherine II.
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  • Ray Lankester) that this condition has been arrived at through some such intermediate stage as that offered by Polychaet Magelona.
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  • Ray Lankester to the members of a series of tubes, proved in some cases to be excretory in nature, which exist typically to the number of a single pair in most of the segments of the Chaetopod body, and open each by a ciliated orifice into the coelom on the one hand, and by a pore on to the exterior of the body on the other.
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  • Goodrich, endorsed by Lankester, led to the opinion that under the general morphological conception of "nephridium" were included two distinct sets of organs, viz.
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  • There are, however, anatomical and histological differences to be seen at any rate at the extremes between the undoubted nephridia of Goodrich, Meyer and Lankester, and the coelomoducts of the same authors.
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  • This example is similar to cases among the Polychaeta where a true nephridium is provided with a large funnel, a coelomostome, according to the nomenclature of Lankester.
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  • Lankester, Introductory Chapter in A Treatise on Zoology; E.
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  • From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • Lankester in the ninth edition of this work attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards the right side.
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  • Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • (Lankester.) x, y, The median antero-posterior axis.
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  • (Lankester.) c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to the shell.
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  • (Lankester.) the animal into the large anterior region of the sub-pallial space.
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  • 6, d), which were originally described by Lankester as orifices possibly connected with the evacuation of the generative products.
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  • - A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.
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  • (Lankester.) skirt.
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  • demonstrated by Lankester in 1867, at a pie, Pedal nerve.
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  • The capito-pedal organs of Lankester (= rudimentary ctenidia).
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  • k, 1, p, J affords a means of test ing the conclusion that we have in Lankester's 4 capito-pedal bodies the rudimentary ctenidia.
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  • (Lankester.) f, Papilla of the larger nephridium.
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  • (Lankester.) q, Intestine in transverse section.
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  • (Lankester.) o, Mouth.
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  • (Lankester.) a, Cephalic tentacle.
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  • (Lankester.) A, Simple introvert completely introverted.
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  • Lankester as a branch of the Cephalopoda, chiefly on account of the protrusible suckerbearing processes at the anterior end of Pneumonoderma.
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  • (All from Lankester.) by the mantle-skirt, is the ctenidium with its free end turned backwards.
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  • (Lankester.) Anterior cephalic tentacle.
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  • Lankester, whilst H.
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  • (Lankester.) ph, Pharynx (stomodaeal inattachment to the ecto vagination).
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  • The other extreme end closes, but the invaginated endoderm cells remain in continuity with this extremity of the blastopore, and form the " rectal peduncle " or " pedicle of invagination " of Lankester, although the endoderm cells retain no contact with the middle region of the now closed-up blastopore.
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  • The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
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  • Ray Lankester, pt.
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  • Ray Lankester, " Mollusca," in 9th ed.
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  • Lankester the arrangement is " nomomeristic " and " nomotagmic."
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  • In Lankester's terminology, therefore, the head of an insect is " triprosthomerous."
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  • Lankester (Quart.
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  • In the mining districts of Pennsylvania the organization fell under the control of a lawless element,, 014k (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • (From Lankester, Q.
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  • The evidence of the exact equivalence of the segmentation and appendages of Limulus and Scorpio, and of a number of remarkable points of agreement in structure, was furnished by Ray Lankester in an article published in 1881 (" Limulus an Arachnid," Quart.
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  • (From Lankester.) to possess only five pairs of anterior or prosomatic appendages.
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  • has been shown by Lankester Letters as in fig.
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  • (After Lankester, toe cit.) Magnified MOO p GC. D R.
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  • (From Lankester, loc. cit.) figs.
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  • The probability appears to be against an actual introversion of the appendage and its lamellae, as was at one time suggested by Lankester.
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  • VII, Usually considered to be the tergum of the genital somite, but suggested by Pocock to be that of the other [According to the system of numbering explained in the text, if VII is the tergum of the praegenital somite (as is probable) it should be labelled Prg without any number, and the somites VIII to XIII should be lettered 1 to 6, indicating that they are the six normal somites of the mesosoma; whilst XV to XVIII should be replaced by the numbers 7 to 12 - an additional suppressed segment (making up the typical six) being reckoned to the metasomatic fusion.] (From Lankester, Q.
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  • (After Lankester, loc. cit.) the last pair of legs in both Scorpio and Limulus, viz.
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  • (From Lankester, loc. cit.) palpiform appendages.
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  • The struc ture of the lateral eye of Limulus was first described by Grenacher, and further and more accurately by Lankester and Bourne (5) and by Watase; that of Scorpio by Lan kester and Bourne, FIG.
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  • (For details the reader is referred to Watase (11) and to Lankester and Bourne (5).) The structure of the central eyes of Scorpio and spiders and also of Limulus differs essentially from that of the lateral eyes in having two layers of cells (hence called diplostichous) beneath the lens, separated from one another by a membrane (figs.
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  • (From Lankester, loc. cit.) forming a star-like chitinous centre in section, each lateral eye of Scorpio has several rhabdoms of five or less rhabdomeres, indicating that the Limulus lateral eye-unit is more specialized than the detached lateral eyelet of Scorpio, so as to present a coincidence of one lens with one rhabdom.
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  • (After Lankester, loc. cit.) eyes, it is to be noted that no Crustacean has structures corresponding to the peculiar diplostichous central eyes, though these occur again (with differences in detail) in Hexapoda.
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  • A similar pair of coxal glands, lobate instead of ovoid in shape, was described by Lankester in Mygale, and it was also shown by him that the structures in Limulus called " brick-red glands " by Packard have the same structure and position as the coxal glands of Scorpio and Mygale.
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  • Previously to this, Lankester's pupil Gulland had shown (1885) that in the embryo the coxal gland is a comparatively simple tube, which opens to the exterior in this position and by its other extremity into a coelomic space.
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  • Similar observations were made by Laurie (17) in Lankester's laboratory (1890) with regard to the early condition of the coxal gland of Scorpio, and by Bertkau (41) as to that of the spider Atypus.
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  • Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).
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  • (After Lankester, loc. cit.) has as many structure of the prosoma, and must play an important part economy of these organisms. In Limulus (figs.
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  • (After Lankester.) placed in the same somites as those of Scorpio, but there is one additional posterior pair.
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  • (After Lankester and Boerne from Parker and Haswell's Textbook of Zoology, Macmillan & Co.) these open into irregular swollen vessels which are the veins or venous sinuses.
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  • An arrangement of great functional importance in regard to the venous system must now be described, which was shown in 1883 by Lankester to be common to Limulus and Scorpio.
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  • (After Lankester and Bourne, Q.
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  • They are figured and their importance for the first time recognized in the memoir on the muscular and skeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio by Lankester, Beck and Bourne (4).
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  • (After Lankester.) 7.
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  • In Limulus Lankester found (15) the spermatozoa to possess active flagelliform " tails," and to resemble very closely those of Scorpio which, as are those of most terrestrial Arthropoda, are actively motile.
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  • (From Lankester, loc. cit., after Packard.) with all air-breathing Arthropoda except Peripatus, possesses these tubules, which are often called Malpighian tubes.
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  • (From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.
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  • An important fact in its favour was discovered by Laurie (17), who investigated the embryology of two species of Scorpio under Lankester's direction.
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  • (After Lankester, Trans.
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  • It has been insisted, by those who accepted Lankester's original doctrine of the direct or genetic affinity of the Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, that Apus and Branchipus really come very near to the ancestral forms which connected those two great branches of Appendiculate (Parapodiate) animals.
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  • ro B From Lankester, "Limulue an Arachnid."
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  • Delobranchia, Lankester (vel Hydro Pneustea, Pocock).
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  • From Lankester, Journ.
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  • The appearance of tracheae in place of lung-sacs cannot be regarded as a starting-point for a new line of descent comprising all the tracheate forms; From Lankester, Journ.
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  • Appendages of 2nd pair folding in a horizontal plane; their basal segments n From Lankester, Q.
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  • (From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.") Remarks.
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  • (From Lankester, " Limulus and Arachnid.") Galeodes has been made the means of a comparison between the structure of the Arachnida and Hexapod insects by Haeckel and other writers, and it was at one time suggested that there was a genetic affinity between the two groups - through Galeodes, or extinct forms similar to it.
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  • Lankester, " Limulus an Arachnid," Quart.
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  • Lankester and A.G.
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  • Lankester, " Coxal Glands of Limulus, Scorpio and Mygale," Quart.
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  • Lankester, " Mobility of the Spermatozoa of Limulus," Quart.
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  • Lankester (Homoplasy and Homogeny), " On the Use of the term Homology in Modern Zoology," Ann.
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  • Lankester, " Notes on some Habits of Scorpions," Journ.
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  • Ray Lankester, in Ann.
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  • The term " grade " was introduced by Ray Lankester (" Notes on Embryology and Classification," in Quart.
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  • Ray Lankester obtained the Radcliffe Travelling Fellowship at Oxford in 1870, and became a fellow and lecturer at Exeter College in 1872.
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  • On the ether hand, a survey of the facts of cellular embryology which were accumulated in regard to a variety of classes within a few years of Kovalevsky's work led to a generalization, independently arrived at by Haeckel and Lankester, to the effect that a lower grade of animals may be distinguished, the Protozoa or Plastidozoa, which consist either of single cells or colonies of equiformal cells, and a higher grade, the Metazoa or Enterozoa, in which the egg-cell by " cell division " gives rise to two layers of cells, the endoderm and the ectoderm, surrounding a primitive digestive chamber, the archenteron.
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  • Of these latter, two grades were further distinguished by Lankester - those which remain possessed of a single archenteric cavity and of two primary cell-layers (the Coelentera or Diploblastica), and those which by nipping off the archenteron give rise to two cavities, the coelom or body-cavity and the metenteron or gut (Coelomata or Triploblastica).
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  • A genealogical tree of animal kingdom (Lankester, 1884).
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  • ii.) except that Phylum 17, Diplochorda (a name doubtfully applicable to Phoronis) is replaced by Podaxonia, a term employed by Lankester in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia and now used to include a number of groups of doubtful but possible affinity.
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  • (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) and of the female (vaginal) ducts, there is a distinct uterine opening at the opposite end of the body (b).
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  • (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) segment.
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  • (A and B from Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv., C original.) of proglottides or of eggs which are disseminated along with the faeces of the final host and subsequently eaten by herbivorous or omnivorous mammals, insects, worms, molluscs or fish.
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  • (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) the base of the tail; nervous and muscular systems arise; and finally the rostellum and suckers become completely enclosed in the sac formed by the lateral extension of the " hind-body."
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  • (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) purposes inside the cyst, which is itself an organ comparable to an amnion.
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  • Benham in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.
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  • A (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
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  • From Lankester's Treatise on The life history of the order is almost un Zoology, part iv.) k nown, but at the time of hatching the young FIG.
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  • Benham in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology (1901), pt.
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  • (19) Lankester, art, "Polyzoa," Ency.
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  • Minchin (in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
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  • Lankester, art.
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  • Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, ii.
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  • - In this division the body is partly covered by a broad shield, united in front with the head; the eyes are sessile, the first antennae are small, the second rudimentary or wanting; of the numerous feet, sometimes sixty-three pairs, exceeding the number of segments to which they are attached, the first pair are more or less unlike the rest, and in the female the eleventh have the epipod and exopod (flabellum and sub-apical lobe of Lankester) modified to form an ovisac. Development begins with a nauplius stage.
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  • Ray Lankester (18) subsequently described this same form (under the name of Undulina ranarum) A B (From Lankester.) FIG.
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  • 1.2 - Undulina ranarum, Lankester, 1871.
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  • Lankester, " On Undulina, the type of a new group of Infusoria," Quart.
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  • (Lankester.) a, Mouth.
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  • (Lankester.) Shows two conditions with free gill-axis.
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  • Lankester suggested that f, Foot.
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  • An example of the latter is seen in a common little freshwater bivalve, the Pisidium pusillum, which has been studied by Lankester.
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  • Protobranchia si After Drew, in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • (After Lankester.) m, Mouth.
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  • Increase of knowledge has now, however, established the conclusion that the agreement of structure supposed to obtain between Polyzoa and true Mollusca is delusive; and accordingly they, together with the Brachiopoda, were removed from the Molluscan phylum by Lankester in his article in the 9th edition of this work (on the which present article is based).
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  • In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.
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  • The arrangement adopted by Ray Lankester in the 9th edition of the Ency.
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  • was published important advances have been made in our knowledge of the Mollusca, as the result of researches largely due to the interest excited in the subject by Lankester's article.
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  • Between ectoderm and endoderm a third intermediate cell-layer _r B (After Lankester, 15.) FIG.
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  • The external form of the embryo meanwhile passes through highly characteristic changes, which are on the whole fairly constant ara (After Lankester, 17.) FIG.
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  • Mollusca, and it is possible to construct a diagrammatic mollusc, as was first done by Lankester, which will possess these primitive features.
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  • In the Amphineura the nervous system, having no (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
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  • Lankester, " Contributions to the Developmental History of the Mollusca," Phil.
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  • (1899); " Mollusca," Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
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  • Ray Lankester, Treatise on Zoology (1900), pt.
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  • Ray Lankester (Ency.
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  • The tegmentum is formed by the fold of mantle covering the From Lankester, Treatise on Zoology.
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  • Ray Lankester, "Mollusca," in the 9th ed.
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  • Ray Lankester, have urged that the word is so firmly asssociated with historical implications of fixity which are now incongruous with its application, that it ought to be discarded from scientific nomenclature.
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  • Ray Lankester in the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London (xvi.
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  • HAPLODRILI (so called by Lankester), often called Archiannelida (Hatschek), the name provisionally given to a number of FIG.
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  • Dupetit Thouars in the Biographie universelle; all these were collected under the title Memorials of Ray, and edited (with the addition of a complete catalogue of his works) by Dr Edwin Lankester, 8vo (Ray Society), 1846; Correspondence (with Willughby, Martin Lister, Dr Robinson, Petiver, Derham, Sir Hans Sloane and others), edited by Dr Derham, 1718; Selections, with additions, edited by Lankester (Ray Society), 1848.
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  • Ray Lankester (preface to the English edition of C. Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy), and employed by the same writer in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia (article "Zoology") to denote the eighth phylum, or major division, of coelomate animals.
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  • (3) Portion of (2) enlarged to show atrio-coelomic canals ("brown funnels" of Lankester).
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  • Lankester, "Contributions to the Knowledge of Amphioxus lanceolatus (Yarrell)," op. cit., xxix.
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  • The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) passes through conditions which would have been described by most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many separate " species " or even " genera," - that in fact forms known as Bacterium, Hicrococcus, Bacillus, Leptothrix, &c., occur as phases in one life-history.
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  • Egg-shaped mass of zoogloea of Beggiatoa roseo-persicina (Bacterium rubescens of Lankester); the gelatinous swollen walls of the large crowded cocci are fused into a common gelatinous envelope.
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  • Considerable advances in our knowledge of the various chromogenic bacteria have been made by the studies of Beyerinck, Lankester, Engelmann, Ewart and others, and have assumed exceptional importance owing to the discovery that Bacteriopurpurin - the red colouring matter contained in certain sulphur bacteria - absorbs certain rays of solar energy, and enables the organism to utilize the energy for its own life-purposes.
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  • Lankester (1900).
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  • Dohrn, Ray Lankester and Huxley.
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  • (1904); Paul Pelseneer, Mollusca; Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
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  • Ray Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, vol.
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  • - In addition to the works referred to at the beginning of the article, the following deal with the general subject: Bather, Gregory and Goodrich, "Echinoderma," in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology (London, 1900); F.
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  • Hence the term Appendiculata was introduced by Lankester (preface to the English edition of Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy, 1878) to indicate the group. The relationships of the Arthropoda thus stated are shown in the subjoined table: - (Sub-phylum r.
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  • (3) As in Chaetopoda, coelomic funnels (coelomoducts) may occur right and left After Lankester, Q.
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  • of Lankester's Treatise on Zoology).
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  • Lankester (2) was the first to suggest that (as is actually the fact in the Nauplius larva of the Crustacea) the prae-oral somites or prosthomeres and their appendages were ancestrally postoral, but have become prae-oral " by adaptational shifting of the oral aperture."
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  • Lankester (5) has shown (and his views have been accepted by Professors Korschelt and Heider in their treatise on Embryology) that the limb of the lowest Crustacea, such as Apus, consists of a corm or axis which may be jointed, and gives rise to outgrowths, either leaf-like or filiform, on its inner and outer margins (endites and exites).
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  • The principal forms assumed by the Arthropod parapodium and its rami may be thus enumerated: (1) Axial corm well developed, unsegmented or with two to four segments; lateral endites and exites (rami) numerous and of various lengths (certain 8 limbs of lower After Lankester, Q.
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  • Hexapoda and Arachnida); the penultimate joint with a process equal in length to the last joint, so as to form a nipping organ (chelae of Crustaceans and Arachnids); the last joint reflected and movable on the penultimate, as the blade of a clasp-knife on its handle (the retrovert, After Lankester, Q.
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  • Lankester, " Primitive Cell-layers of the Embryo," Annals and Mag.
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  • Lankester, " Observations and Reflections on the Appendages and Nervous System of Apus Cancriformis," Quart.
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  • Caldwell's views were accepted by Lankester (8) in the 9th edition of this work, the Phylum Podaxonia being there instituted to include the groups just mentioned, together with the Pterobranchia.
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  • Agassiz, from Lankester's Treatise on for passive locomotion, Zoology.
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  • In this category are included (by Goodrich and Lankester) the gonad ducts of the Oligochaeta, certain funnels without any aperture to the exterior that have been detected in Nereis, &c., funnels with wide and short ducts attached to nephridia in other Polychaeta, gonad ducts in the Capitellidae, the gonad ducts of the leeches.
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  • (After Lankester, 17.) dc, Directive corpuscle (outcast cell).
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  • In one genus (Planorbis) the plasma of the blood is coloured red by haemoglobin, this being the only instance of the presence of this body in the blood of Glossophorous Mollusca, though it occurs in corpuscles in the blood of the bivalves Arca and Solen (Lankester).
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  • Once the identity of the chilaria with the pentagonal sternal plate of the scorpion is recognized - an identification first insisted on by Lankester - the whole series of segments and appendages in the two animals, Limulus and Scorpio, are seen to correspond most closely, segment for segment, with one another (see figs.
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  • differ; but the lateral eyes of Scorpio were shown by them (After Lankester, loc. cit.) to be similar in structure to the lateral eyes of Limulus, and the central eyes of Scorpio to be identical in structure with the central eyes of Limulus (see below).
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  • That this (Alter Lankester, loc. cit.) in-sinking has taken place, and that the lung-books or in-sunken gill-books of Scorpio really represent appendages (that is to say, limbs or parapodia) is proved by their developmental history (see FIG.
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  • correspond exactly in structure, the narrow, flat blood-space in the lamellae being interrupted by pillar-like junctions of the two surfaces in both cases (see Lankester (4)), and C ?„?
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  • 221) Lankester described under the name " coxal glands " a pair of brilliantly white oviform bodies lying in the Scorpion's prosoma immediately above the coxae of the fifth and sixth pairs of legs (fig.
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  • They have till recently been very generally identified with the nephridia of Chaetopod worms, but there is good reason for considering the true nephridia (typified by the nephridia of the earthworm) as a distinct class of organs (see Lankester in vol.
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  • Applying these principles to the consideration of the Arachnida, we arrive at the conclusion that the smaller and simpler Arachnids are not the more primitive, but that the Acari or mites are, in fact, a degenerate group. This was maintained by Lankester in 1878 (19), again in 1881 (20); it was subsequently announced as a novelty by Claus in 1885 (21).
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  • Embolobranchia, Lankester (vel Aero Pneustea, Pocock).
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  • Renewed study of every group was the result of the acceptance of the genealogical idea and of the recognition of the importance 1 Sir Edwin Ray Lankester (b.
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  • 1847) was the eldest son of Edwin Lankester (1814-1874), a physician and naturalist (F.R.S.
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  • The general purpose is to give something like an equivalence of importance to divisions or branches indicated by the same term, but it is not intended to imply that every phylum has the Ursprung der Wirbelthiere (Leipzig, 1875); and Lankester, Degeneration (London, 1880),, ti, ae / .r ?
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  • This is the primitive shell-sac discovered by Lankester in 1871, and shown by him to precede the development of the permanent shell in a variety of molluscan types.
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  • r) by which the blood passes from a pericardial blood-sinus formed by the fused veins into the dorsal vessel or heart (see Lankester's Zoology, part ii., introductory chapter, lgoo), The only exception to this is in the case of minute degenerate forms where the heart has disappeared altogether.
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  • It is by the specialization of two " endites " that the endopodite and exopodite of higher Crustacea are formed, whilst a flabelliform exite is the homogen or genetic equivalent of the epipodite (see Lankester, " Observations and Reflections on Apus Cancriformis," Q.
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