Khartum sentence example

khartum
  • News of the occupation reached Europe simultaneously with the tidings of the fall of Khartum, an event which disappointed Italian hopes of military co-operation with Great Britain in the Sudan.
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  • On the 10th of April 1891, Menelek communicated to the powers his views with regard to the Italian frontier, and announced his intention of re-establishing the ancient boundaries of Ethiopia as far as Khartum to the north-west and Victoria Nyanza to the south.
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  • A railway, built in 1909-1910, connects Khartum, Wad Medani and Sennar with Kordofan, the White Nile being bridged near Goz Abu Guma.
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  • Their decision to follow him out of their own country to Khartum brought about the fall of that city.
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  • Early in 1883 he went to Khartum as chief of the staff of the army there, then commanded by Suliman Niazi Pasha.
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  • After a month's vigorous drilling Hicks led 5000 of his men against an equal force of dervishes in Sennar, whom he defeated, and cleared the country between the towns of Sennar and Khartum of rebels.
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  • Relieved of the fear of an immediate attack by the mandists the Egyptian officials at Khartum intrigued against Hicks, who in July tendered his resignation.
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  • The Egyptian ministry, however, did not then believe in the power of the mandi, and the expedition started from Khartum on the 9th of September.
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  • Uninterrupted steamboat communication was thus established during the flood season between Khartum and Wau, a distance of some 93 0 m.
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  • Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 by the Mandi Mahommed Ahmed as his capital and so continued after the fall of Khartum in January 1885.
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  • In this section of the river there occurs a continuous series of slight falls and rapids, including all the historical "six cataracts," beginning below Khartum and terminating at Philae.
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  • There is a direct telegraphic service to Gondokoro and Khartum and to Mombasa.
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  • In the 'forties and 'fifties Egyptian officials, Austrian missionaries, and British, Dutch, Italian, and German explorers had carried our knowledge of the Nile beyond Khartum as far south as Gondokoro.
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  • It was also one of the principal stopping-places between Cairo and Khartum.
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  • The Khartum Zoological Gardens are free to the public and are under the control of the municipality, but the collection of animals is under the Game Preservation Department.
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  • It is the chief depot for grain raised in the Gezira, has oil and soap works, and is a thriving commercial centre, being on the main trade route between Khartum and Abyssinia.
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  • In 1909 it was connected by railway with Khartum, and thus the hindrance to trade through the Blue Nile being scarcely navigable between January and June was overcome.
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  • Near this spot, on the 17th of January 1885, a British force marching to the relief of General Gordon at Khartum was attacked by the Mahdists, who were repulsed.
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  • But the railway from Khartum to El Obeid, via Sennar, built in 1909-1911, crosses the Nile some 60 m.
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  • Between Thebes and Khartum the western banks of the Nile are composed of Nubian Sandstone, which extends westward from the river to the edge of the great Libyan Desert, where it forms the bed rock.
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  • The southern winds of-the summer months which occur in the low latitudes north of the equator are not felt much north of Khartum.
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  • Another line connects at Wadi Haifa with the Sudan system, affording direct telegraphic communication via Khartum and Gondokoro with Uganda and Mombasa.
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  • In the wave of successful rebellion, except at Khartum, few of the Egyptian garrisons were killed when the posts fell, long residence and local family ties rendering easy their assimilation in the ranks of the Mahdists.
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  • In the autumn of 1884, when a British expedition went up the Nile to endeavour to relieve the heroic Gordon, besieged in Khartum, the Egyptians did remarkably good work on the line of communication from Assiut to Korti, a distance of 800 m., and the training and experience thus gained were of great value in all subsequent operations.
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  • The supply department controls mills at Tura, Halfa and Khartum.
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  • Later, however, the Sudanese cadets were transferred to a branch school at Khartum.
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  • On the 2nd of September the khalifa attacked the British-Egyptian troops at Kerreri (near Omdurman), and being routed, his men dispersed; Khartum was occupied, and on the i9th of September the Egyptian flag was rehoisted at Fashoda.
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  • Its labors embraced not only Egypt and Nubia (as far as Khartum) but also the Egyptian monuments in Sinai and Syria; its immense harvest of material is of the highest value, the new device of taking paper impressions or squeezes giving Lepsius a great advantage over his predecessors, similar to that which was later conferred by the photographic camera.
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  • Khartum was founded at this time, and in the following years the rule of the Egyptians was largely extended and control obtained of the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa (see SUDAN: History).
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  • By this time the Mabdi was master of the greater part of the Sudan, but Khartum and some other fortified points still held out.
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  • The efforts made to extricate the garrisons, including the mission of General Gordon, the fall of Khartum, and the Nile Expedition under Lord Wolseley, are described below separately in the section of this article dealing with the military operations.
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  • That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in open rebellion, except the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own.
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  • Meanwhile 5000 men, who had served in the Egyptian army, were collected and forcibly despatched to Khartum via Suakin.
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  • Malet reported that the Egyptian government could not supply the necessary funds, and that there was great risk of failure, Colonel Hicks, who had resigned his post on the 23rd of July, and had been appointed commander-in-chief, started from Khartum on.
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  • Early in November the force from Khartum was caught by the mahdists short of water at Kashgil, near El Obeid, and was almost totally destroyed, Colonel Hicks, with all his European officers, perishing.
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  • Stewart having reached Khartum on B,.Wsh the 18th of February, the policy of British non-inter- expediuoa vention in regard to Sudan affairs could no longer be maintained.
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  • General Gordon, questioned on the point, telegraphed from Khartum, on tl,e 7th of March, that he might be cut off by a rising at Shendi, adding, I think it, therefore, most important to follow up the success near Suakin by sending a small force to Berber.
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  • Baring, who, realizing soon afterwards the gravity of the situation, telegraphed on the 16th of March: It has now become of the utmost importance not only to open the road between Suakin and Berber, but to come to terms with the tribes between Berber and Khartum.
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  • The public announcement of the latter was a grave mistake, which increased General Gordons difficulties, and the situation at Khartum grew steadily worse.
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  • A cloud now settled down upon Khartum, and subsequent communications were few and irregular.
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  • On the gth of March General Gordon proposed, if the immediate evacuation of Khartum is determined upon irrespective of outlying towns, to send down.
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  • On the I3th of March Lord Granville gave full power to General Gordon to evacuate Khartum and save that garrison by conducting it himself to Berber without delay, and expressed a hope that he would not resign his commission.
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  • From Berber the Nile is followed (210 m.) to Khartum.
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  • The memorandum of the adjutant-general above referred to was based on the hypothesis that Khartum could not hold out beyond the 15th of November, and that the expedition should reach Berber by the 20th of October.
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  • On this day General Gordons four steamers arrived; and on the morning of the 24th Sir C. Wilson, with 20 British soldiers in red coats and about 280 Sudanese, started in the Bordein and Telahawiyeh for Khartum.
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  • Khartum had been taken and General Gordon killed on the morning of the 26th of January 1885, having thus held out thirty-four days beyond the date when he had expected the end.
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  • On the 8th of January 1885 Lord Wolseley repeated that the measures you propose will not assist my operations against Khartum, adding:
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  • I have from first endeavoured to impress on government that I am strong enough to relieve Khartum, and believe in being able to send a force, when returning by way of Berber, to Suakin, to open road and crush Osman Digna.
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  • In a long despatch penn, of the 6th of March he discussed the general situation, aDo and pointed out that although the force at his disposal military was amply sufficient for raising the siege of Khartum Situation at end of and defeating the mahch, the conditions were changed operatloas.
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  • The failure of the operations in the Sudan had been absolute and complete, and the reason is to be sought in a total misconception of the situation, which caused vacillation and delay, and in the choice of a route by which, having regard to the date of the decision, the relief of General Gordon and Khartum was impossible.
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  • In October 1886 Wad en Nejumi, the amir who had defeated Hicks Pasha in Kordofan three years before, and led the assault at Khartum when General Gordon.
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  • In September of that year Luptons captain, Rufai Aga, was massacred with all his men at Dembo, and Lupton, short of ammunition, was forced to retire to Dem Suliman, where he was completely cut off from Khartum.
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  • In March f885, however, Amadi fell to the dervishes, and on the 18th of April Karamalla arrived near Lado, the capital, and sent to inform Emin of the fall of Khartum.
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  • The European prisoners of the khalifa found in OmdurmanCharles Neufeld, Joseph Ragnotti, Sister Teresa Grigolini, and some 30 Greekswere released; and on Sunday the 4th of September the sirdar, with representatives from every regiment, crossed the r~iver to Khartum, where the British and Egyptian flags were hoisted, and a short service held in memory of General Gordon, near the place where he met his death.
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  • The British troops were quickly sent down stream to Cairo, and the sirdar, shortly afterwards created Lord Kitchener of Khartum, was free to turn his attention to the reduction of the country to some sort of order.
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  • Troops and transport were then concentrated at Faki Kohi, and Colonel Wingate sent with reinforcements from Khartum to take command of the expedition and march to Gedid, where it was anticipated the khalif a would be obliged to halt.
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  • The railway, delayed by the construction of the big bridge over the Atbara, was opened to the Blue Nile opposite Khartum, 187 m.
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  • Trade is chiefly with Yola, a town on the Benue in British Nigeria, and with Khartum via Wadai.
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  • For three years Lepsius and his party explored the whole of the region in which monuments of ancient Egyptian and Ethiopian occupation are found, from the Sudan above Khartum to the Syrian coast.
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  • The great arteries, however, number three, which, starting from Massawa by way of Asmara, run, two to Abyssinia, and one to Kassala and Khartum.
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  • In 1820 the oasis of Siwa was subdued by his arms; in 1823 he laid the foundations of Khartum.
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  • At the western end of the esplanade are the zoological gardens, the chief hotel, the Coptic church ° and the Mudiria House (residence of the governor of Khartum).
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  • On the right (northern) bank of the Blue Nile is the suburb of Khartum North, formerly called Halfaya,' where is the principal railway station.
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  • It is joined to the city by a bridge (completed 1910) containing a roadway and the railway, Khartum itself being served by steam trams and rickshaws.
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  • West of the zoological gardens is the point of junction of the Blue and White Niles and here is a ferry across to Omdurman (q.v.) on the west bank of the White Nile a mile or two below Khartum.
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  • In the river immediately below Khartum is Tuti Island, on which is an old fort and an Arab village.
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  • From its geographical position Khartum is admirably adapted as a commercial and political centre.
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  • It got its name from the resemblance of the promontory at the confluence of the two Niles to an elephant's trunk, the meaning of khartum in the dialect of Arabic spoken in the locality.
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  • The history of the city is intimately bound up with that of the Sudan generally, but it may be recalled here that in 1884, at the time of the Mandist rising, General Gordon was sent to Khartum to arrange for the evacuation by the Egyptians of the Sudan.
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  • At Khartum he was besieged by the Mandists, whose headquarters were at Omdurman.
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  • Khartum was captured and Gordon killed on the 26th of January 1885, two days before the arrival off the town of a small British relief force, which withdrew on seeing the city in the hands of the enemy.
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  • Nearly every building in Khartum was destroyed by the Mandists and the city abandoned in favour of Omdurman, which place remained the headquarters of the mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, till September 1898, when it was taken by the Anglo-Egyptian forces under General (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, and the seat of government again transferred to Khartum.
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  • In 1899 the railway from Wadi Halfa was completed to Khartum, and in 1906 through communication by rail was established with the Red Sea.
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  • After a visit home in 1875 he went to Cairo, and then to Khartum, in the hope of an opportunity for travelling in the interior of Africa.
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  • The next three or four years were employed by Emin in various journeys through his province, and in the initiation of schemes for its development, until in 1882, on his return from a visit to Khartum, he became aware that the Mandist rising, which had originated in Kordofan, was spreading southward.
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  • Every facility was granted by Mehemet Ali, who in 1825 appointed him one of a commission to examine the district of Sennaar; but Brocchi, unfortunately for science, fell a victim to the climate, and died at Khartum on the 25th of September 1826.
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  • The importance of Gondokoro lies in the fact that it is within a few miles of the limit of navigability of the Nile from Khartum up stream.
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  • This effected, the Abyssinians almost came into contact with the Egyptian troops sent up the Blue Nile (after the occupation of Khartum) to Famaka and towards Gallabat; but as both sides were anxious to avoid a collision over this latter town, no hostile results ensued.
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  • It was Forster who, when appealing to the government at the time of Gordon's danger at Khartum, spoke of Mr Gladstone as able "to persuade most people of most things, and himself of almost anything," and though the phrase was much resented by Mr Gladstone's entourage, the truth that underlay it may be taken as representing the very converse of his own character.
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  • The insurrection increased the responsibilities which intervention had imposed on England, and an expedition was sent to Suakin to guard the littoral of the Red Sea; while, at the beginning.of 1884, General Gordonwhose services in China had gained him a high reputation, and who had had previous experience in the Sudan was sent to Khartum to report on the condition of affairs.
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  • The British expedition to Suakin was engaged in a series of battles with Osman Digna, the mahdis lieutenant; while General Gordon, after alternate reverses and successes, was isolated at Ofl~ Khartum.
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  • And before it reached its goal, Khartum was forced to surrender, and General Gordon and his few faithful followers were murdered (January 1885).
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  • In 1896 Lord Salisburys government decided on extending the Anglo-Egyptian rule over the Sudan, and an expedition was sent from Egypt under the command of Sir Herbert (afterwards Lord) Kitchener to Khartum.
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  • In September 1898 the Sudanese forces were decisively beaten, with great slaughter, in the immediate neighborhood of Omdurman; and Khartum became thenceforward the Onj dot.
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  • The neighbouring posts of Gondokoro, on the east bank of the Nile, and Lado, soon became stations of the Khartum ivory and slave traders.
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  • At Khartum, centrally situated, the minimum temperature is about 40° F., the maximum 113 °, the mean annual temperature being 80°.
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  • In the deserts north of Khartum vegetation is almost confined to stunted mimosa and, in the less arid districts, scanty herbage.
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  • In the Nile valley north of Khartum the inhabitants are of very mixed origin.
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  • The capital, Khartum (q.v.), pop. with suburbs about 70,0 0, is built in the fork formed by the junction of the White and Blue Niles.
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  • Opposite Khartum, on the west bank of the White Nile, is Omdurman, pop. about 43,000, the capital of the Sudan during the Mandia.
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  • North of Khartum the chief means of communication is by railway; south of that city by steamer.
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  • The first line runs from the Nile at Wadi Haifa across the desert in a direct line to Abu Hamed, and from that point follows more or less closely the right (east) bank of the Nile to Khartum.
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  • At Khartum the Blue Nile is bridged and the railway is continued south through the Gezira to Sennar.
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  • The length of the line from Halfa to Khartum is 575 m.; from Khartum to Obeid 350 m.
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  • The total distance to Port Sudan from Khartum is 493 m., the line to Suakin being 4 m.
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  • The distance by rail and steamer between Khartum and Alexandria is about 1490 m.
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  • Steamers run on the Nile between Kerma and Kareima, and above Khartum the government maintains a regular service of steamers as far south as Gondokoro in the Uganda Protectorate.
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  • From Khartum other lines go to Kassala and the Red Sea ports.
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  • North of Khartum agricultural land is confined to a narrow strip on either side of the Nile and to the few oases in the Libyan Desert.
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  • The date-palm is cultivated along the Nile valley below Khartum, especially on the west bank in the Dongola mudiria and in the neighbouring oases.
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  • Each of the mudirias into which the country is divided is presided over by a mudir (governor) responsible to the central govern ment at Khartum.
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  • Financial affairs are managed from Khartum, but control over expenditure is exercised by the Egyptian financial department.
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  • The Gordon College at Khartum trains teachers and judges in the Mahommedan courts and has annexed to it a secondary school.
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  • A small force of British troops is also stationed in the Sudan - chiefly at Khartum.
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  • Scientific and medical subjects are dealt with in the Reports of the Wellcome Research Laboratories, Gordon College, Khartum.
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  • Breasted and some account of the temples and fortresses from Halfa to Khartum will be found in the following section, Ancient Monuments south of Haifa, while the history of the early and medieval Christian kingdoms is outlined in the articles Ethiopia and Dongola.
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  • Continuing his march south Ismail reached the confluence of the White and Blue Niles and established a camp at Ras Khartum.
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  • (This camp developed into the city of Khartum.) At this time Badi, the king of Sennar, from whom all real power had been wrested by his leading councillors, determined to submit to the Egyptians, and as Ismail advanced up the Blue Nile he was met at Wad Medani by Badi who declared that he recognized Mehemet Ali as master of his kingdom.
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  • He led expeditions up the White Nile against the Dinkas as far as Fashoda; defeated the Abyssinians on the Sennar frontier, and taught the natives of Khartum to build houses of brick.
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  • The successors of Mehemet Ali, in an endeavour to make the country more profitable, extended their conquests to the south, and in 1853 and subsequent years trading posts were established on the Upper Nile, the pioneer European merchant being John Petherick, British consular agent at Khartum.'
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  • The European merchants above Khartum had sold their posts to Arab agents, who oppressed the natives in every conceivable fashion.
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  • 2 The control of all territories south of Gondokoro had been given (April 1, 1869) to Sir Samuel Baker, who, however, only left Khartum to take up his governor ship in February 1870.
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  • Gordon made strenuous efforts towards crushing the slave trade, but their endeavours were largely thwarted by the inaction of the authorities at Khartum.
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  • The most powerful of the slave traders was Zobeir Pasha, who, having defeated a force sent from Khartum to reduce him to obedience, invaded Darfur (1874).
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  • The khedive Ismail revived Said's project of a railway, and a survey for a line from Wadi Halfa to Khartum was made (1871), while a branch line to Massawa was also contemplated.
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  • He replaced at Khartum Ismail Pasha Eyoub, a Turk made governor-general in 1873, who had thwarted as much as he dared all Gordon's efforts to reform.
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  • When Gordon left the Sudan he was succeeded at Khartum by Raouf Pasha, under whom all the old abuses of the Egyptian administration were revived.
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  • Stewart, 3 to Khartum to arrange the withdrawal of the Egyptian civil and military population.
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  • 4 Gordon reached Khartum on the 18th of February 1884 and at first his mission, which had aroused great enthusiasm in England, promised success.
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  • Colonel Stewart had been sent to Khartum in 1882 on a mission of inquiry, and he drew up a valuable report, Egypt, No.
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  • As the only means of preserving authority at Khartum (and thus securing the peaceful withdrawal of the garrison) Gordon repeatedly telegraphed to Cairo asking that Zobeir Pasha might be sent to him, his intention being to hand over to Zobeir the government of the country.
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  • The Mandist movement now swept northward and on the 20th of May Berber was captured by the dervishes and Khartum isolated.
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  • It started too late to achieve its object, and on the 25th of January 1885 Khartum was captured by the Mandi and Gordon killed.
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  • The fall of Khartum was followed by the withdrawal of the British expedition, Dongola being evacuated in June 1885.
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  • The arsenal and dockyard and the printing-press at Khartum were kept busy (the workmen being Egyptians who had escaped massacre).
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  • Otherwise Khartum was deserted, the khalifa making Omdurman his capital and compelling disaffected tribes to dwell in it so as to be under better control.
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  • Besides ex-officials like Slatin and Lupton, they included several Roman Catholic priests and sisters, and numbers of Greek merchants established at Khartum.
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  • That control would have been lost had a European power other than Great Britain obtained possession of any part of the Nile valley; and at the time the Sudan was reconquered (1896-98) France was endeavouring to establish her authority on the river between Khartum and Gondokoro, as the Marchand expedition from the Congo to Fashoda demonstrated.
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  • This line shortened the distance from Khartum to the nearest seaport by nearly r000 m., and by reducing the cost of carriage of merchandise enabled Sudan produce to find a profitable outlet in the markets of the world.
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  • The influence he gained at length aroused the anxiety of the authorities, and in May 1881 a certain Abu Saud, a notorious scoundrel, was sent to Abba Island to bring the sheikh to Khartum.
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  • By the end of 1882 the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in rebellion, with the exception of the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial Provinces.
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  • It need only be added that General Gordon was besieged at Khartum by the mandi and was killed there when the town was captured by the mandists on the 25th-26th of January 1885.
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  • In the few months between the fall of Khartum and his death the mandi, relieved from the incessant strain of toil, copied in his private life all the vices of Oriental despots while maintaining in public the austerity he demanded of his followers.
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  • The command of the expedition was given to Sir Samuel Baker, who reached Khartum in February 1870, but, owing to the obstruction of the river by the sudd or grass barrier, did not reach Gondokoro, the centre of his province, for fourteen months.
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  • After a short stay in Cairo, Gordon proceeded to Khartum by way of Suakin and Berber, a route which he ever afterwards regarded as the best mode of access to the Sudan.
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  • From Khartum he proceeded up the White Nile to Gondokoro, where he arrived in twenty-four days, the sudd, which had proved such an obstacle to Baker, having been removed since the departure of the latter by the Egyptian governor-general.
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  • Greater results might have been obtained but for the fact that Khartum and the whole of the Sudan north of the Sobat were in the hands of an Egyptian governor, independent of Gordon, and not too well disposed towards his proposals for diminishing the slave trade.
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  • Gordon, seeing that the Abyssinian difficulty could wait for a few months, proceeded to Khartum.
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  • But no satisfactory settlement was arrived at, and Gordon came back to Khartum in January 1878.
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  • He then returned to Khartum, and in 1879 went again into Darfur to pursue the slave traders, while his subordinate, Gessi Pasha, fought them with great success in the Bahr-el-Ghazal district and killed Suleiman, their leader and a son of Zobeir.
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  • This put an end to the revolt, and Gordon went back to Khartum.
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  • The British government then asked General Gordon to proceed to Khartum to report on the best method of carrying out the evacuation.
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  • Travelling by Korosko and Berber, he arrived at Khartum on the 18th of February, and was well received by the inhabitants, who believed that he had come to save the country from the rebels.
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  • Gordon at once commenced the task of sending the women and children and the sick and wounded to Egypt, and about two thousand five hundred had been removed before the mandi's forces closed upon Khartum.
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  • This request was made on the very day Gordon reached Khartum, and was in accordance with a similar proposal he had made when at Cairo.
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  • The advance of the rebels against Khartum was combined with a revolt in the eastern Sudan, and the Egyptian troops in the vicinity of Suakin met with constant defeat.
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  • The garrison of Berber, seeing that there was no chance of relief, surrendered a month later and Khartum was completely isolated.
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  • Had it not been for the presence of Gordon the city would also soon have fallen, but with an energy and skill that were almost miraculous, he so organized the defence that Khartum held out until January 1885.
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  • When it is remembered that Gordon was of a different nationality and religion to the garrison and population, that he had only one British officer to assist him, and that the town was badly fortified and insufficiently provided with food, it is just to say that the defence of Khartum is one of the most remarkable episodes in military history.
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  • On the 24th Wilson started with two of the steamers for Khartum, but on arriving there on the 28th he found that the place had been captured by the rebels and Gordon killed two days before.
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  • In the first place, Wilson could not have started sooner than he did; and in the second, even if he had been able to do so, it would have made no difference, as the rebels could have taken Khartum any time they pleased after the 5th of January, when the provisions were exhausted.
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  • Besides government offices the public buildings include hospitals, and a branch of the Gordon College of Khartum.
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  • Navigability really only begins again at Gondokoro on the Sudan frontier, from which point steamers ply to Khartum (see Nile).
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  • At the western end of the esplanade are the zoological gardens, the chief hotel, the Coptic church ° and the Mudiria House (residence of the governor of Khartum).
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  • At Khartum, centrally situated, the minimum temperature is about 40° F., the maximum 113 °, the mean annual temperature being 80°.
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  • The mudirias are Haifa, Red Sea, Dongola and Berber in the north (these include practically all the region known as Nubia); Khartum, Blue Nile and White Nile in the centre; Kassala and Sennar in the east; Kordofan in the west; and Bahrel-Ghazal, Upper Nile (formerly Fashoda) and Mongalla in the south.
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  • Khartum is connected by land lines with Egypt and Uganda, thus affording direct telegraphic connexion between Alexandria and Mombasa (2500 m.).
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  • (See also Gordon, Charles George.) Assuan and collected at Khartum troops from some of the outlying stations.
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