Jevons sentence example

jevons
  • It occurs frequently in poetry, owing to the alteration for metrical reasons of the natural order of words; Jevons quotes as an example Shakespeare, Henry VI.: "The duke yet lives that Henry shall depose."
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  • Its use in the Eucharist of the undivided Church has been continued since the great schism, although the Eastern Church protests against the interpolation 1 Jevons, Introd.
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  • The questions, what is the total amount of available coal in the coalfields of Great Britain and Ireland, and how long it may be expected to last, have frequently been discussed since the early part of the 19th century, and particular attention was directed to them after the publication of Stanley Jevons's book on The Coal Question in 1865.
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  • In quantitative judgments we may think x = y, or, as Boolero oses x = v ° p p y = - ° y, or, as Jevons proposes, x = xy, or, as Venn proposes, x which is not y=o; and equational symbolic logic is useful whenever we think in this quantitative way.
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  • An old error that we may have a valid syllogism from merely negative premises (ex omnibus negativis), long ago answered by Alexander and Boethius, is now revived by Lotze, Jevons and Bradley, who do not perceive that the supposed second negative is really an affirmative containing a " not " which can only be carried through the syllogism by separating it from the copula and attaching it to one of the extremes, thus: The just are not unhappy (negative).
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  • Worse still, Jevons proceeded to confuse analytic deduction from consequence to ground with hypothetical deduction from ground to conseguence under the common term "inverse deduction."
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  • Jevons supposed induction to be inverse deduction, distinguished from direct deduction as analysis from synthesis, e.g.
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  • The views of Jevons and Sigwart are in agreement in two main points.
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  • According to both, again, the hypothesis of a law with which the process starts contains more than is present in the particular data: according to Jevons, it is the hypothesis of a law of a cause from which induction deduces particular effects; and according to Sigwart, it is a hypothesis of the ground from which the particular data necessarily follow according to universal laws.
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  • Lastly, Wundt's view is an interesting piece of eclecticism, for he supposes that induction begins in the form of Aristotle's inductive syllogism, S-P, S-M, M-P, and becomes an inductive method in the form of Jevons's inverse deduction, or hypothetical deduction, or analysis, M-P, S-M, S-P. In detail, he supposes that, while an " inference by comparison," which he erroneously calls an affirmative syllogism in the second figure, is preliminary to induction, a second " inference by connexion," which he erroneously calls a syllogism in the third figure with an indeterminate conclusion, is the inductive syllogism itself.
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  • He agrees with Jevons in calling this second syllogism analytical deduction, and with Jevons and Sigwart in calling it hypothetical deduction.
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  • It is, in fact, a common point of Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt that the universal is not really a conclusion inferred from given particulars, but a hypothetical major premise from which given particulars are inferred, and that this major contains presuppositions of causation not contained in the particulars.
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  • Mill confused Newton's analytical deduction with hypothetical deduction; and thereupon Jevons confused induction with both.
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  • Hence it is that Jevons, followed by Sigwart and Wundt, reduces it to deduction from a hypothesis in the form "Let every M be P, S is M,.
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  • Jevons, in his Principles of Science, constantly makes the same sort of mistake.
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  • In the same way, to infer a machine from hearing the regular tick of a clock, to infer a player from finding a pack of cards arranged in suits, to infer a human origin of stone implements, and all such inferences from patent effects to latent causes, though they appear to Jevons to be typical inductions, are really deductions which, besides the minor premise stating the particular effects, require a major premise discovered by a previous induction and stating the general kind of effects of a general kind of cause.
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  • As we have seen, Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt all think that induction contains a belief in causation, in a cause, or ground, which is not present in the particular facts of experience, but is contributed by a hypothesis added as a major premise to the particulars in order to explain them by the cause or ground.
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  • It is not syllogism in the form of Aristotle's or Wundt's inductive syllogism, because, though starting only from some particulars, it concludes with a universal; it is not syllogism in the form called inverse deduction by Jevons, reduction by Sigwart, inductive method by Wundt, because it often uses particular facts of causation to infer universal laws of causation; it is not syllogism in the form of Mill's syllogism from a belief in uniformity of nature, because few men have believed in uniformity, but all have induced from particulars to universals.
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  • Liard, Les Logiciens Anglais Contemporains (5th ed., 1907), deals only with the 19th-century inductive and formal-symbolic logicians down to Jevons, to whom the book was originally dedicated.
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  • Jevons (in An Introduction to the History of Religion, vii.) distinguishes between " things taboo," which have the mystic contagion inherent in them, and " things tabooed," to which the taboo-infection has been transmitted.
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  • His father, Thomas Jevons, a man of strong scientific tastes and a writer on legal and economic subjects, was an iron merchant.
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  • Jevons suffered a good deal from ill health and sleeplessness, and found the delivery of lectures covering so wide a range of subjects very burdensome.
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  • Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
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  • This paper does not appear to have attracted much attention either in 1862 or on its publication four years later in the Journal of the Statistical Society; and it was not till 1871, when the Theory of Political Economy appeared, that Jevons set forth his doctrines in a fully developed form.
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  • As regards the discovery of the connexion between value in exchange and final (or marginal) utility, the priority belongs to Gossen, but this in no way detracts from the great importance of the service which Jevons rendered to English economics by his fresh discovery of the principle, and by the way in which he ultimately forced it into notice.
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  • But a certain exaggeration of emphasis may be pardoned in a writer seeking to attract the attention of an indifferent public. It was not, however, as a theorist dealing with the fundamental data of economic science, but as a brilliant writer on practical economic questions, that Jevons first received general recognition.
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  • The last-named .volume contains Jevons's interesting speculations on the connexion between commercial crises and sun-spots.
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  • Jevons's work in logic went on par/ passe with his work in political economy.
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  • In this work Jevons embodied the substance of his earlier works on pure logic and the substitution of similars; he also enunciated xv.
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  • Jevons's general theory of induction was a revival of the theory laid down by Whewell and criticized by Mill; but it was put in a new form, and was free from -some of the non-essential adjuncts which rendered Whewell's exposition open to attack.
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  • These articles and one other were republished after Jevons's death, together with his earlier logical treatises, in a volume, entitled Pure Logic, and other Minor Works.
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  • The criticisms on Mill contain much that is ingenious and much that is forcible, but on the whole they cannot be regarded as taking rank with Jevons's other work.
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  • Stanley Jevons, edited by his wife (1886).
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  • This work contains a bibliography of Jevons's writings.
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  • The calculations of the last Coal Commission as to the future exports and of Mr Jevons as to the future annual consumption make us hesitate to prophesy how long our coal resources are likely to last.
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  • In quantitative judgments we may think x = y, or, as Boolero oses x = v ° p p y = - ° y, or, as Jevons proposes, x = xy, or, as Venn proposes, x which is not y=o; and equational symbolic logic is useful whenever we think in this quantitative way.
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