of Rio de Janeiro, on the Cuyaba river near its discharge into the Sao Lourengo, the principal Brazilian tributary of the Paraguay.
There is more than one meaning of Rio De Janeiro discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
at Rio de Janeiro led to a separatist revolution for the formation of a new state, to be called the Federagao do Equador.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
by Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, S.
by Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and W.
Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.
from the city of Rio de Janeiro and about 60 m.
The shipping of fresh milk to Rio de Janeiro and butter-making are comparatively new industries.
In 1842 a long series of quarrels in Rio de Janeiro culminated in a revolution in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, which was suppressed at Santa Luzia, Minas Geraes, on the 10th of August of that year.
The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
of Rio de Janeiro, and about 300 m.
American plateau in Brazil from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro, at a height of 3000 to 5000 ft.
PETROPOLIS, a city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an elevated valley of the Serra de Estrella, 2634 ft.
of the city of Rio de Janeiro, with which it is connected by a combined railway and steamship line, and also by a longer railway line.
railway, now a part of the Leopoldina system, which connects with Rio de Janeiro and Nictheroy on the coast, and with the station of Entre Rios on the Central of Brazil railway.
Petropolis has since become the summer residence of the diplomatic corps and of the higher officials of the Federal government, and was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1893 to 1903.
Its culminating point is in the Organ Mountains (Serra dos Orgaos), near Rio de Janeiro, which reaches an elevation of 7323 ft.
The inland range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to form the eastern rim of the Sao Francisco basin, as the Serra do Espinhaco.
It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.
The more important of these rivers are the Itapicuru, Paraguassu, Contas or Jussiape, Pardo or Patype, and Jequitinhonha, of Bahia; the Mucury, and Doce, of Espirito Santo; and the Parahyba do Sul of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
It rises on an elevated tableland in the state of Sao Paulo and flows across the state of Rio de Janeiro from west to east, through a broad fertile valley producing coffee in its most elevated districts and sugar on its alluvial bottom-lands nearer the sea.
There is a large number of these lakes along the coasts of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, some of them of considerable size.
The larger and more important of these are Todos os Santos, on which is located the city of Sao Salvador or Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro or Guanabara, beside which stands the capital of the republic. These two are freely accessible to the largest ships afloat.
Going southward there is also a gradual decrease in the mean annual temperature, the difference between Rio de Janeiro and the Amazon being about 5°.
South of Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de Janeiro exceeding 43 in.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
The census of the 31st of December 1900 was strikingly defective; it was wholly discarded for the city of Rio de Janeiro, and had to be completed by office computations in the returns from several states.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The only ports having a rich and well-populated country behind them are Rio de Janeiro and Santos, and these are the terminals of long lines of railway which are being slowly extended farther into the interior.
This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
In many cases, as at Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Manaos, the cost and maintenance of the new port-works are met by an additional tax on merchandise, though the immediate expenditures are met by advances from the national treasury, and at Rio de Janeiro by a foreign loan.
According to a summary for the six years 1901 to 1906, derived from official sources and published in the annual Retrospecto of the Jornal do Commercio, of Rio de Janeiro, the values of the imports and exports for those years (exclusive of coin), reduced to pounds sterling at the average rate of exchange (or value of one milreis) for each year, were as follows: - Nearly 761% of the exports of 1906 were of coffee and rubber, the official valuations of these being: coffee 2 45,474,5 2 5 milreis gold (27,615,884), and rubber (including manigoba and mangabeira), 12 4,941,433 milreis gold (£14,055,911).
Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.
The principal sugar-producing states are Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons, the greater part of which is consumed in the country.
to Rio de Janeiro is adapted to the cultivation of a great variety of fruits of a superior quality.
Ceara., Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples.
These importations at Rio de Janeiro in 1906 were 12,464,170 kilograms of jerked beef and 12, 575 head of cattle.
In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds.
Woollen manufactures have been established in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul.
Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul.
The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
The manufacture of woollen blankets, cashmeres, flannels, &c., had also undergone noteworthy development and is carried on in fifteen factories, located principally in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
Biscuit-making is represented by a large number of factories, for the most part in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and there are a number of breweries of the most modern type in the same two states.
The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
The principal war arsenal is in Rio de Janeiro.
Military instruction is given at the Eschola Militar of Rio de Janeiro.
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
The principal naval arsenal is located at Rio de Janeiro.
The government possesses dry docks at Rio de Janeiro.
The naval school, which has always enjoyed a high reputation among Brazilians, is situated on the island of Enxadas in the bay of Rio de Janeiro.
There are smaller arsenals at Para, Pernambuco, Sao Salvador and Ladario (Matto Grosso) and a shipbuilding yard of considerable importance at the Rio de Janeiro arsenal.
Secondary and higher education are under both federal and state control, the former being represented by lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro.
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
In 1892 the diocese of Rio de Janeiro was made an archbishopric, and four new dioceses were created.
In 1905 the archbishop of Rio de Janeiro was made a cardinal.
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.
The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which has occupied the imperial palace of Sao Christovao since the overthrow of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value, but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of comparatively slight service.
The Observatorio Nacional at Rio de Janeiro is another prominent public institution.
That of Rio de Janeiro is widely celebrated for its avenues of royal palms, but it has also rendered an important service to the country in the dissemination of exotic plants.
in 1808 broke down some of these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and the publication of an official gazette.
These deficits were common enough under the monarchy, but they have become still more prominent under the republic. According to the " Retrospecto Commercial " for 1906 of the Jornal do Commercio (Rio de Janeiro, March 5, 1907), the aggregate deficits for the eleven years 1891 to 1904 were 692,000,000 milreis, or, say, £43,250,000.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
He began to survey the coast about Rio de Janeiro, to which he gave that name, because he discovered it on the 1st of January 1531.
Rio de Janeiro was not settled till a later period; and for a considerable time the nearest captaincy to Santo Amaro, sailing along the coast northwards, was that of Espirito Santo.
Rio de Janeiro was first occupied by French settlers.
Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable colonists.
In 1710 a squadron, commanded by Duclerc, disembarked 1000 men, and attacked Rio de Janeiro.
The regent was requested to establish there the seat of his government, but a more secure asylum presented itself in Rio de Janeiro, where the royal fugitives arrived on the 7th of March.
Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.
On his return to Rio de Janeiro on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor with great enthusiasm.
On the 6th of September prevailing discontent took definite .shape in the form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.
It was proposed that the army of some io,000 men under his command should advance northwards towards Rio de Janeiro, while the insurgent squadron threatened the city of Rio.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
Mean while, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States and organized the National Guard.
Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro.
In the meantime the ships bought by President Peixoto arrived off Rio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama from escaping.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
Early in 1895 murmurings and disorderly conduct against the authorities began to take place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which had always been a hotbed of intrigue.
In July 1899 President Roca had visited Rio de Janeiro accompanied by an Argentine squadron, this being the first official visit that any South American president had ever paid to one of the adjoining states.
(Rio de Janeiro, 1883); John Armitage, History of Brazil from 1808 to 1831 (2 vols., London, 1836); Moreira de Azevedo, Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1841); V.
de Macedo, Anno biographico brazileiro (3 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1876); A.
Mello Moraes, Brazil historico (4 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1839); Chorographia historica, chronographica genealogica, nobiliaria e politica do Brazil (5 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1858-1863); A Independencia e o imperio do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); B.
Pereira da Silva, Varoes illustres do Brazil (2 vols., Paris,1888); Historia da fundacao do imperio brazileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Segundo Periodo do reinado de D.
(Paris, 1875); Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1888); J.
de Varnhagen, Historia geral do Brazil (2 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Historia das luctas com os Hollandeses (Vienna, 1871); C. E.
Wappaus, Geographica physica do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1884); A.
Moreira Pinto, Chorographia do Brazil (5th ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1895); Therese Prinzessin von Bayern, Meine Reise inden brasilianischen Tropen (Berlin, 1897); M.
In 1850 autonomy was voted by the general assembly at Rio de Janeiro, and on the 1st of January 1852 the province of Amazonas was formally installed.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.