Harnack sentence example

harnack
  • Harnack, Hist.
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  • Herrmann, Julius Kaftan and Adolf Harnack are the chief names, diverges from his teaching in many directions; e.g.
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  • Harnack in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie, Band v.
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  • Harnack and some others use the expression in a wider sense.
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  • Harnack, Julicher and McGiffert, however, agree with Lightfoot, Weiss, Zahn (and early tradition) in holding that the letter is wholly Pauline - a position which is proving more and more acceptable to contemporary scholarship.
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  • Harnack); the Catholic church for good and evil the creation of St Paul (P. Wernle, H.
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  • See also the chief church histories or histories of doctrine (Harnack; Loofs; Hagenbach; Shedd); A.
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  • Harnack, "Brod and Wasser" (Texte and Untersuch.
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  • There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, v.
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  • A full list of the later bibliography will be found in Harnack's Dogmengeschichte and Chronologie.
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  • Gaul, Die Abfassungsverhdltnisse der pseudojustinischen Cohortatio ad Graecos (1902); Adolf Harnack, Diodor von Tarsus.
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  • Harnack accepts this view.
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  • " We are of the unalterable conviction," says Harnack, " that what happens in time and space is subject to the universal laws of movement; that accordingly there cannot be any miracles in this sense, i.e.
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  • ADOLF HARNACK (1851-), German theologian, was born on the 7th of May 1851 at Dorpat, in Russia, where his father, Theodosius Harnack (1817-1889), held a professorship of pastoral theology.
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  • Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology, and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.).
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  • In this work Harnack traces the rise of dogma, by which he understands the authoritative doctrinal system of the 4th century and its development down to the Reformation.
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  • In 1886 Harnack was called to Marburg; and in 1888, in spite of violent opposition from the conservative section of the church authorities, to Berlin.
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  • At Berlin Harnack continued his literary labours.
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  • Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one of the most prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars, and trained up in his "Seminar" a whole generation of teachers, who carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole of Germany and even beyond its borders.
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  • Harnack, s.v.
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  • Weiss, Meyer, Sabatier, Lightfoot, Hort, Sanday, Bacon, Julicher, Harnack, Zahn and many others.
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  • Thus, as Harnack points out, "there is no trace of a theological difference between Severus and Leontius," only a difference of terminology and of degree of willingness to assent to the formula of Chalcedon.
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  • Harnack, F.
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  • Harnack's History of Dogma, iii.
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  • Kanons, part iii., or Harnack and Preuschen, Gesch.
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  • For his theological position see Harnack, Dogmengeschichte; Hort, Six Lectures on the Ante-Nicene Fathers; Westcott, " Clem.
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  • Harnack, Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litt.
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  • Loisy's developmental defence of Catholicism; Professor Harnack's review of L'Evangile et l'Eglise in the Theol.
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  • Lacey's Harnack and Loisy, with introduction by Viscount Halifax (London, 1904); "The Encyclical and M.
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  • 780-790; Harnack, Texte and Untersuchungen, v.
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  • According to Harnack, it is an extract from the Gospel of the Egyptians.
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  • In 1885 a long fragment was discovered at Akhmim, and published by Bouriant in 1892, and subsequently by Lods, Robinson, Harnack, Zahn, Schubert, Swete.
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  • (See Harnack i.
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  • 768-773; Harnack ii.
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  • Harnack, who was the first to show that these Acts were Catholic in character and not Gnostic as had previously been alleged, assigns their composition to this period mainly on the ground that Hippolytus was not acquainted with them; but even were this assumption true, it would not prove the non-existence of the Acts in question.
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  • Hence Zahn gives its date as 90 -100 at latest; Dobschiitz, as loo -110; and Harnack, as 110 -130.
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  • Harnack's editions.
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  • 80-120; Harnack.
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  • The text has been edited by Hilgenfeld in 1877, Gebhardt and Harnack in 1878, and Funk in 1887 and 1901.
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  • Critical editions have been published by Gebhardt and Harnack, Patr.
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  • An ancient church order which belongs to the latter part of the 2nd century (see Harnack's Sources of Apostolic Canons, Engl.
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  • Harnack's edition of the Didache (1884), his Sources of the Apostolic Canons (Eng.
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  • Harnack and others.
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  • Harnack, Lukas der Arzt (1906); B.
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  • Among the chief editions are those of Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868); Gebhardt and Harnack, Patres Apostolici (1877, with full bibliographical material); Funk, Patres Apost.
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  • Further see Harnack, Gesch.
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  • "He was perhaps the most learned and able theologian after Alcuin, as well versed in Greek theology as he was familiar with Augustinianism, a comprehensive genius, who felt the liveliest desire to harmonize theory and practice, and at the same time give due weight to tradition" (Harnack).
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, iv.
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  • This is Harnack's date for the nucleus of Vis.
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  • Harnack places " The Shepherd " proper mostly under Hadrian
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  • suggest that the greater systems, like the Valentinian and Marcionite, had not yet made an impression there, as Harnack argues that they must have done by c. 145.
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  • Harnack, in Fasc. iii.
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  • For the wide literature of the subject, see the two former editions, also Harnack's Chronologie der altchr.
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  • Jerome speaks of Lactantius as a poet, and several poems have been attributed to him: - De Ave Phoenice (which Harnack thinks makes use of Clement), De Passione Domini and De Resurrectione (Domini) or De Pascha ad Felicem Episcopum.
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  • Harnack, 0.
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  • The distinction between heretics and schismatics was preserved because it prevented a public denial of the old principles, because it was advisable on political grounds to treat certain schismatic communities with indulgence, and because it was always possible in case of need to prove heresy against the schismatics."(Harnack's History of Dogma, ii.
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  • On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
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  • 4, 1882), Harnack, Das Monchthum, seine Ideale and seine Geschichte, 2nd ed., 1882; Eng.
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  • Zahn's reasoned argument stands in contrast to the blind reliance on tradition shown by Macdonald, The Symbol of the Apostles, and the fanciful reconstruction of the primitive creed by Baeumer, Harnack or Seeberg.
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  • Writers who follow Harnack explain " holy spirit " as the gift of impersonal influence, and between wide limits of difference agree in regarding Christ as Son of God by adoption and not by nature.
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  • Kattenbusch, with whom Harnack is in general agreement, regards the Old Roman Creed, which comes to light in the 4th century, as the parent of all developed forms, whether Eastern or Western.
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  • He criticizes Harnack's theory that there existed in the East, that is, in Asia Minor, or in Asia Minor and Syria as far back as the beginning of the 2nd century, a Christological instruction (uiOmua) organically related to the second article of the Roman Creed, and formulas which taught that the " One God " was " Creator of heaven and earth," and referred to the holy prophetic spirit, and lasted on till they influenced the course of creed-development in the 4th century.
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  • Lumby, and adopted by Harnack.
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  • Harnack articles in HerzogHauck's Realencyklopddie (" Athanasianum " and " Konstantinopolitanisches Symbol ") (1896), &c.; K.
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  • Reinach's explanation of this ancient crux interpretum, which has been accepted by Harnack, Bousset, Porter, Sanday, Swete and others, fixes the earliest date of the composition of the Apocalypse as A.D.
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  • His book exhibits a Christianity that is - as Harnack (Ency.
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  • 20), and is accepted as genuine by Harnack 2 and Kruger.'
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  • As Harnack says, "There is no trace of any tendency beyond the immediate purpose of maintaining the true Christian life in the church and warning it against covetousness and against an unbrotherly spirit.
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  • Some modern scholars (among whom Harnack was formerly numbered, though he has modified his views on the point) feel a difficulty about the peremptory tone which Ignatius adopts towards Polycarp. There was some force in this argument when the Ignatian Epistles were dated about 140, as in that case Polycarp would have been an old and venerable man at the time.
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  • Lightfoot, 8 Harnack,' Kruger)'° is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations have been inserted."Besides these we have no other sources for the life of Polycarp; the Vita S.
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  • Harnack, for instance, attacks this link at both ends.
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  • argument Harnack has the support of a considerable number of modern scholars who deny the Ephesian residence of John the apostle.
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  • But, as Gwatkin 13 has pointed out, Harnack's arguments are by no means decisive.
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  • (a) When Irenaeus describes himself as a boy (7rais), he need not have meant a very young lad, under thirteen, as Harnack makes out.
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  • It is true that Harnack has adduced arguments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus was not born till about 140; 15 but against this we may quote the decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130, 16 while Lightfoot argues for 120.17 The fact that Irenaeus never quotes Polycarp does not count for much.
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  • His influence was that of saintliness rather than that of intellect."(b) A discussion of Harnack's second line of argument is impossible here.
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  • His views have been accepted by (amongst many others) Renan, 1 Hilgenfeld, 2 Gebhardt,3 Lipsius, 4 Harnack, 5 Zahn, 6 Lightfoot, ?
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  • Harnack, however, after careful investigation, prefers 155.
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  • (1891), xix., 241-285; Harnack, Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur (1897).
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  • Duchesne, Origines du culte chretien (Paris, 1898); Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticae (London, 1834); Adolf Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (Freiburg, 1897).
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma (trans.
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  • Harnack and F.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, vol.
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  • Harnack.
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  • Harnack's edition in Texte u.
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  • Other references to the literature may be found by consulting Harnack's Altchristl.
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  • 4); - words which Adolf Harnack has placed on the title-page of his larger History of Dogma.
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  • Harnack varies in his usage.
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  • Thus Harnack agrees with Catholic theologians in holding that, in the fullest sense, there is no dogma except the Catholic.
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  • Again, Harnack gravely differs from Catholic dogmatists in assigning a historical origin to what in their view is essentially divine - supernatural in origin, supernatural even in its declaration by the church.
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  • In all this, Harnack speaks from a point of view of his own.
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  • Both Loofs and Harnack contrast with " dogma " the work of individual thinkers, calling the latter " theology."
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  • This belief may be called what Loofs has called Harnack's definition of dogma - individuell berechtigt, and perhaps nur individual.
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  • Here perhaps Harnack speaks from inside his own type of religious faith; but not from inside dogma.
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  • Harnack, Expansion of Christianity, ii.
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  • As to the Gospel's date, critics have returned from 160-170 (Baur), i 50 (Zeller), 130 (Keim), to 110-115 (Renan) and 80-110 (Harnack): since Irenaeus says its author lived into the times of Trajan (90-117), a date somewhere about 105 would satisfy tradition.
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  • those of Harnack and Kruger), and classed each under its own literary type - so sacrificing to outer form, which is quite secondary in primitive Christian writings, the more significant fact of religious affinity.
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  • of Gebhardt, Harnack and Zahn j ointly (1875-1877), J.
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  • von Hefele (edited by KnOpfler.) In addition to these general works on church history should be named the histories of doctrine by Harnack, Loofs, Seeberg and Fisher; and on the early Church the works on the apostolic age by Weizsacker (1886, English translation 1894), McGiffert (1897), and Bartlet (1899); Renan's Histoire des origines du christianisme (1867 ff., in 7 vols., translated in part); Pfleiderer's Urchristenthum (1887); S.
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  • - The most notable thing about the life of 1 Upon the spread of the Church during the early centuries see especially Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christenthums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten.
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  • (Upon the minor orders which arose in the 3rd and following centuries, and became ultimately a training school for the higher clergy, see Harnack, Texte and Untersuchungen, ii.
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  • canon 6 of the council of Sardica, and canon 57 of the council of Laodicea; and see Harnack, Mission and Ausbreitung, pp. 319 seq.).
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  • On early Christian literature, in addition to the works on Church history, see especially the monumental Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, by Harnack (1893 ff.).
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  • This analysis has on the whole been accepted by Harnack, Schi rer, Deane and Beer.
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  • A conference held in June 1900, in which the speakers included Mommsen and von Wilamowitz, Harnack and Diels, was followed by the " Kiel Decree " of the 26th of November.
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  • Harnack's Vortrag and W.
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  • This may be said to be the position generally taken up by the leading English scholars; it differs slightly in a conservative direction, but not widely, from that of Harnack, a little more from that of Pincher, and again a little more from that of von Soden.
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  • It is an event of no small importance for criticism that so eminent a scholar as Prof. Harnack should have come round to the view, almost universally prevalent in England, that St Luke himself was the final editor and author of both the Third Gospel and the Acts.
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  • The Apocalypse is plausibly dated by Reinach and Harnack near to the precise year 93, and the other writings may be referred to the reign of Domitian (81-96), though many critics would extend the limit to some two decades later.
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  • But, broadly speaking, the judgment of the early Church has been endorsed by that of after ages Harnack raises an interesting question (Reden u.
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  • Special mention should be made of Wellhausen on the Synoptic Gospels (1903-1905), and Harnack, Beitrage z.
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  • 5), 1899; Harnack's " Eine Schrift Novatians," in Texte and Untersuchungen, xiii.
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  • Harnack of Berlin, accept dates that are not far removed from the ancient Christian literary tradition.
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  • Harnack, Lukas der .Arzt (Berlin, 1905).
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  • Harnack, Das Wesen des Christentums (Berlin, 1900), (Eng.
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  • The former are represented by Harnack, the latter by Wieseler, whom Lightfoot follows.
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  • Ramsay's various works, and in Harnack's Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, i.
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  • 9, p. 460 seq.; Harnack, Die Lehre der zwolf Apostel (1884), pp. 931 37; Haller, "Die Propheten der nachapostolischen Kirche," in the Theol.
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  • On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.
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  • Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, Teil I.
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  • Harnack, Texte and Untersuchungen, Bd.
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  • Harnack, Zur Quellenkritik der Geschichte des Gnosticismus (1873); A.
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  • Hilgenfeld, Ketzergeschichte, pp. 1-83; Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlich.
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  • Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, i.
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  • Harnack, " Uber das gnostische Buch Pistis-Sophia," Texte u.
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  • The first theory has assumed three main forms. (a) Harnack maintains that they were taken from the Gospel according to the Egyptians.
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  • At George's instigation the second Sirmian formula (promulgated by the third council of' Sirmium 3S7), which was conciliatory towards strict Arianism, was opposed at the council of Ancyra in 358 (Harnack, Hist.
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  • has led Prof. Harnack to suppose that in the earliest age water was used equally with wine, and Eusebius the historian, who had means of judging which we have not, saw no difficulty in identifying with the first converts of St Mark the Therapeutae of Philo who took only bread and water in their holy repast.
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  • Brightman, Eastern Liturgies; Cabrol and Leclercq, Monumenta liturgics, reliquiae liturgicae vetustissimae (Paris, 1900); Harnack, History of Dogma; Jas.
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  • Harnack, Der christl.
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  • Harnack, Geschichte der altchristl.
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  • Harnack, Spriiche and Reden Jesu, die zweite Quelle des Matthdus and Lukas (1907).
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  • 5); and Harnack has gone so far as to suggest that they, and especially Prisca, actually wrote our epistle.
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  • Harnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma (Eng.
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  • At the Nicene Council there were bishops from Nisibis (Jacob), Rhesaena, Macedonopolis (on the Euphrates, west of Edessa), and Persia (Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii.
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  • The Bampton lectures were translated into German by Harnack.
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  • Ramsay: Pauline and other Studies (1907), p. 76, Hoennicke's Das Judenchristentum (1908), p. 156 seq., and Harnack's Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii.
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  • epitres (1890); Harnack, Die Chronologie, 480 seq., 710-711; Moffatt, Ency.
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  • His writings are described by Harnack as a curious mixture of Catholic orthodoxy and unconscious tendencies to Protestantism; their most noticeable point is the great importance they attach to the fact of sin, both original and actual.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, iii.
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  • Harnack has tabulated the results which our scanty data allow us to reach in his Expansion of Christianity.
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  • Harnack, Gesch.
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  • 4 (3) Harnack and a few other modern scholars 5 maintain that the office of presbyter did not come into existence till the 2nd century.
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  • "In some congregations," as Harnack says, "it may have been long before the elders were chosen, in others this may have come very soon; in some the sphere of the competency of the presbyters and patrons may have been quite indefinite and in others more precise."
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  • Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
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  • Harnack's second argument depends for its validity upon certain conclusions with regard to the date of James and I Peter, which are not universally accepted.
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  • Few English scholars, for instance, would accept as late a date as 120140 for James, and I Peter may be as early as 65, as Harnack himself admits, though he prefers a date in the reign of Domitian.
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  • With regard to the testimony of Acts, the only question, since Harnack admits the Lucan authorship,' is whether Luke is describing the organization of the Church as it existed at the time of the events recorded or reflecting the arrangements which prevailed at the time when the book was written.
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  • work (1883); Harnack, Die Lehre der zwolf Apostel (1884); Loening, Die Gemeindeverfassung des Urchristentums (1889) Sohm, Kirchenrecht (1892); an article by Loofs, in Studien and Kritiken, for 1890 (pp. 619-638); Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries (1902); Schmiedel, article "Ministry," in Enc. Bib.
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  • points to a year not earlier than 33 (Harnack) or later than 38 (C. H.
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  • For further information and discussion see especially Harnack's Chronologie, and Bishop Chase's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
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  • Neither Corinth (as Lightfoot) nor Rome (as Harnack, who assigns it to Bishop Soter, c. 166-174) satisfies all the internal conditions, while the Eastern nature of the external evidence and the homily's quasi-canonical status in the Codex-Alexandrinus strongly favour an Alexandrine origin.
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  • Harnack (Chronologie, ii.
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  • in Rome, as Waitz and Harnack hold, but Lightfoot disproves, Clem.
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  • Waitz, Harnack) infer the existence of at least one source, "Preachings (Kerygmata) of Peter," containing no reference at all to Clement.
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  • A probable date for the "Preachings" used in the Periodoi is c. 200.2 1 While Hort and Waitz say c. 200, Harnack says c. 260.
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  • The account of Peter's journeyings was no doubt based largely on local Syrian tradition, perhaps as already embodied in written Acts of Peter (so Waitz and Harnack), but differing from the Western type, e.g.
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  • Harnack, Chronologie der altchr.
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  • Harris is followed by Harnack and others in supposing that it was only through a careless reading of this inscription that the work was supposed to have been addressed to Hadrian.
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  • Harnack, Altchristl.
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  • Richard (New York and London, 1898); George Wilson (London, 1897); Karl Sell (Halle, 1897); Ferdinand Cohrs (Halle, 1897); Beyschlag and Harnack (1897).
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  • Harnack, Schiller (1898, 2nd ed.
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  • Harnack, Die klassische Asthetik der Deutschen (1892); W.
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  • He graduated at Western Reserve College in 1882 and at Union theological seminary in 1885, studied in Germany (especially under Harnack) in 1885-1887, and in Italy and France in 1888, and in that year received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Marburg.
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  • Thus at the beginning of the Testamentum Domini, edited by Rahmani, there is an apocalypse, possibly of the time of Decius, though it has been worked over (Harnack, Chronol.
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  • To the 4th century belongs, according to Kamper (Die deutsche Kaiseridee, 1896, p. 18) and Sackur (Texte and Forschungen, 1898, p. 114 &c.), the first nucleus of the "Tiburtine" Sibyl, very celebrated in the middle ages, with its prophecy of the return of 3 Harnack, Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur, i.
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  • Lightfoot dates it in 52 or 53; Harnack places it five years earlier.
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  • Harnack, Zur Nachgeschichte der italienischen Reise (1890); H.
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  • Harnack, Goethe in der Epoche seiner Vollendung (2nd ed., 1901); J.
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  • - Adolf Harnack, History of Dogma (Eng.
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  • - Alfred Loisy, The Gospel and the Church (1904); Adolf Harnack, What is Christianity?
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  • " He wished, " as Harnack well remarks, " to point out the might of the Holy Spirit in the apostles, Christ's witnesses; and to show how this might carried the Gospel from Jerusalem to Rome and gained for it entrance into the pagan world, whilst the Jews in growing degree incurred rejection.
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  • Hobart, The Medical Language of St Luke (Dublin, 1882), but hitherto neglected by many Continental scholars, has been urged afresh by Harnack, Lukas der Arzt (Leipzig, 1906; Eng.
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  • On the whole, then, the most tenable theory is that the writer of the " we " sections was also the author of Acts; and that he was Luke, Paul's companion during most of his later ministry, and also his " counterpart," "as a Hellene, who yet had personal sympathy with Jewish primitive Christianity " (Harnack, op. cit.
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  • Harnack, Die Apostelgeschichte, p. 131 ff.).
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  • " Yet in cc. vi.-xii.," as Harnack 2 observes, " the author pursues several lines at once.
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  • The second part pursues the history This view has received Harnack's support, op. cit.
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  • Harnack finds that our sense of the trustworthiness of the book " is enhanced by a thorough study of the chronological procedure of its author, both where he speaks and where he keeps silence."
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  • 4 Harnack, indeed, argues (op. cit.
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  • Particularly is this so as regards the question of authorship. As Harnack observes (Lukas der Arzt, p. 24), the" miraculous " or supernormal ele ment is hardly, if at all, less marked in the " we " sections, which are substantially the witness of a companion of Paul (and where efforts to dissect out the miracles are fruitless), than in the rest of the work.
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  • In the recovery of a more real standard, we owe much to men like Mommsen, Ramsay, Blass and Harnack, trained amid other methods and traditions than those which had brought the constructive study of Acts almost to a deadlock.
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  • Harnack, Die Apostelgeschichte (1908).
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  • Ottley, The Doctrine of the Incarnation (1896); various histories of Dogma, and Harnack (s.v.
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  • Labort, Le Christian-isme dans lempire perse sous Ia dynastte sassanide (1904); Harnack, Die Mission und Ausbreitunt des Chrestenthums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten, 2.
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  • Harnack 1 praises Schleiermacher's description of dogmatic as "historical," he rather strains the meaning of the remark, and creates fresh confusion.
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  • Harnack's point is that "dogmatic theology" ought to be used in a sense corresponding to what he regards as the true meaning of "dogma" - Christian belief in its main traditional outlines.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, i.
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  • particularly exposed to (Harnack).
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  • Harnack in Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, Bd.
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  • (Hanover, 1827); Baur, Epochen (1852); Harnack, "Socrates u.
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  • Harnack, Die Lehre der Apostel, pp. 93 ff ., and The above is substantially the view taken by J.
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  • Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, Bd.
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  • Fischer, Waldeyer and von Bergmann among scientists and surgeons; Mommsen, Treitschke and Sybel among historians, Harnack among theologians, Brunner among jurists.
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  • The hypothesis has won very wide acceptance, but several editors and critics (including Harnack, Zahn and Clemen) remain unconvinced.
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  • 7 see Harnack in Zeitschrift fiir die neutest.
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  • Harnack in What is Christianity?
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  • Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
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  • In 1876 he founded and edited the Theologische Literaturzeitung, and from 1881 to 1910 he edited it with Adolf Harnack.
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  • Harnack in the Theologische Literaturzeitung for May 14, 1910.
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  • Harnack, Dogmengesch.
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  • - Harnack, Lehr.
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  • Harnack (Chron.) under Hadrian.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, v., pp. 309-322 (5894-9).
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  • Harnack, Geschichte d.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma, vols.
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  • Harnack, History of Dogma; E.
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  • Harnack formerly contended that this was an independent work, upon which the Church Order had been grafted, and that as a whole it dated from circ. A.D.
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  • Harnack in Sitzungsberichte der K.
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  • Its earlier part, cc. 1-14, depends upon the Didache, and the rest of it is a book of discipline in which Harnack has attempted to distinguish two older fragments of church law (Texte u.
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  • Usher, as we have seen, identified them, and modern criticism accepts this identification as a fact (Lagarde, Harnack, Funk, Brightman).
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  • His date is given by Harnack as A.D.
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  • Neander, Harnack, Dr Armitage Robinson and James Martineau, whether it represents a real utterance of Christ and not rather the liturgical usage of the region in which the first gospel was compiled.
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  • Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (Freiburg im Br.
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  • Harnack, Hellenistic Judaism had worked out the principles of a theology which simply passed on into the Greek-speaking Christian Church.
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  • The process of change is called by Harnack sometimes " secularization" and sometimes ' Hellenization."
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  • According to Harnack, Athanasius simplified the faith of his time by fastening on the essential point - human immortality or " deification through the Incarnation of true God.
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  • Harnack takes a different view of Origen; the certainty of ultimate salvation overbears free will with a sort of physical necessity.
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  • With these the Orthodox Greek Churches - and with 1 Harnack and F.
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  • Harnack criticizes the doctrinal development.
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  • Of course this does not mean that Harnack considers monophysitism nearer the historic truth, or nearer the normal type of Christian thought.
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  • Harnack ranks his system with Tridentine and post-Tridentine theology on the one hand, and with Protestantism on the other hand, as the third great outcome of the history of dogma.
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  • Harnack, a keenly hostile critic, draws attention to a change in the region of moral theology, not dogmatics.
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  • From Harnack's point of view, the theory destroys Augustinianism, whatever honour may still be paid to that name.
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  • A startling fresh development is suggested by Harnack, while vehemently dismissed as impossible by another Protestant scholar, H.
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  • Harnack and many others as younger representatives on divergent lines.
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  • Harnack or E.
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  • Harnack, as showing steady advance.
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  • Harnack's, Hist.
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  • Irenaeus von der Erliisung and Heiligung (Mainz, 1905); also the histories of dogma, especially Harnack, and Bethune-Baker, An Introduction to the Early History of Christian Doctrine (London, 1903).
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  • Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur, i.
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  • Harnack (Texte and Untersuchungen, i.
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  • On the hypothesis that Tatian remained in Rome until the death of Justin it must have been written there: but on internal evidence Harnack thinks, probably correctly, that it was written in Greece, perhaps in Athens, and Tatian made at least one journey outside Rome before Justin's death (cf.
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  • By means of this assumption too, humanity seemed to be unburdened, and the presupposed capacity for redemption could, therefore, be justified in its widest range" (Harnack's History of Dogma, i.
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  • Jesus and Judas-Thomas (Addai), whom legend buried " in Britio Edessenorum " (explained by Harnack as the Edessan citadel: Aram.
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  • Kaftan appreciates the mystical side of religion, Harnack's criticism is very different from Ritschl's arbitrary exegesis.
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  • Since the revival of learning books on the fathers have been numerous; among the more recent and most accessible of these we may mention Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopcidie, Bardenhewer's Patrologie and Geschichte der altkirchlichen Litteratur, Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bei Eusebius and Ehrard's Die altchristliche Litteratur and ihre Erforschung.
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  • Jacobi, Erinnerungen an August Neander (1882); Philipp Schaff, Erinnerungen an Neander (1886); Adolph Harnack, Rede auf August Neander (1889); A.
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  • Harnack's view is that the creed contains both too much and too little to be a satisfactory test for candidates for ordination, and he would prefer a briefer symbol which could be rigorously exacted from all (cf.
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  • Harnack's History of Dogma; Haureau's Histoire de la philosophie scolastique, 225-238; Hermann Reuter, Geschichte der religiosen Aufkldrung des Mittelalters, vol.
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  • Harnack's History of Dogma is very full (see especially vols.
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  • LITERATURE.-A copious bibliography will be found in Harnack, Chronologie, vol.
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  • Its introduction and six chapters present with rare lucidity the earliest conceptions of the Kingdom of Heaven, the Son of God, the Church, Christian dogma and Catholic worship; and together form a severely critico-historical yet strongly Catholic answer to Harnack's still largely pietistic Wesen des Christentums. It develops throughout the principles that "what is essential in Jesus' Gospel is what occupies the first and largest place in His authentic teaching, the ideas for which He fought and died, and not only that idea which we may consider to be still a living force to-day"; that "it is supremely arbitrary to decree that Christianity must be essentially what the Gospel did not borrow from Judaism, as though what the Gospel owes to Judaism were necessarily of secondary worth"; that "whether we trust or distrust tradition, we know Christ only by means of, athwart and within the Christian tradition"; that "the essence of Christianity resides in the fulness and totality of its life"; and that "the adaptation of the Gospel to the changing conditions of humanity is to-day a more pressing need than ever."
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  • It has indeed been maintained by eminent scholars, chiefly by Hatch and Harnack, that the word episcopus was given originally to the chief officer of a club or a confraternity, so that the episcopus was a financial officer, whereas the presbyters regulated the discipline.
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  • Harnack's treatment in his History of Dogma (vol.
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  • Over and above the general criticism, which may now be said to have been completely answered by the investigations of Zahn, Lightfoot and Harnack, one or two special arguments have been brought against the Epistle to Polycarp. Ussher, for instance, while accepting the other six epistles, rejected this on the ground that Jerome says that Ignatius only sent one letter to Smyrna - a mistake due to his misinterpretation of Eusebius.
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  • Lightfoot, 8 Harnack,' Kruger)'° is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations have been inserted."Besides these we have no other sources for the life of Polycarp; the Vita S.
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  • From the standpoint of the history of enlightenment, as Harnack has observed, " Socinianism with its systematic criticism (tentative and imperfect as it may now seem) and its rejection of all the assumptions based upon mere ecclesiastical tradition, can scarcely be rated too highly.
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  • This form of organization ultimately became universal, and already before the end of the 2nd century it was established in all the parts of Christendom with which we are acquainted, though in Egypt it seems to have been the exception rather than the rule, and even as late as the middle of the 3rd century many churches there were governed by a plurality of officers instead of by a single head (see Harnack, Mission and Ausbreitung des Christenthums, pp. 337 seq.).
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  • All parts of the problem have been greatly forwarded by the recent publication of important works by Wellhausen and Harnack (see below).
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  • 3-7 (see on this point Harnack in the Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1902, pp. 5 0 7-545).
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  • But besides this they have been a strong spiritual and religious influence, as is recognized even by those who have scant sympathy with monastic ideals (see Harnack, What is Christianity?
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  • La Bastie and Burckhardt put the ratio at one-twelfth, Matter at a fifth and Staudlin even at at a half (see Harnack ii.
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  • With regard to the evidence of the Epistle of Clement, Harnack seems to be incorrect in his conclusions.
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  • See Hatch, Organization of the Early Christian Churches (2nd ed., 1882), and Harnack's "excursus" in the German edition of this Tertull.
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  • But now the view of the critico-historical school of Protestant thought, of which Dr Adolf Harnack is so representative a spokesman, is that the preservation of spiritual religion in Catholic Christianity, both Eastern and Western, has been mainly, if not wholly, due to monasticism (see Harnack's early tractate Das Monchtum, translated under the title Monasticism, by E.
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  • - Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma, vol.
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  • Edwin Hatch, " The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church," the Hibbert Lectures, 1888 (1890); Adolf Harnack, The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries (Eng.
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  • If so, we can scarcely help coming to the conclusion that this eye-witness was the author of the work; for the style of this eye-witness is exactly the style of the writer who composed the previous portions (see Harnack, op. cit., reinforcing the argument as already worked out by B.
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  • Harnack in Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, Bd.
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  • (See Preuschen's list in Harnack's Alt-christliche Litteraturgeschichte, i.
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  • Later authoritative pronouncements on the part of the Roman Catholic Church favour Thomism and disown the Occamites; though the keen hostile criticism of Harnack affirms that the Church had need of both systems - of Thomism, to champion its cause in the arena of thought, and of the Nominalist theology to aggrandize the Church as the ruling power in practice.
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