Grum Grzimailo, Description of a Journey to Western China (1898-1899); V.
The population may number about 125,000, of whom 75, 000 are settled and about 50,000 nomads (Grum-Grzimailo).
It is supposed (Grum-Grzimailo) that the Oirads conquered it at the end of the 16th or the beginning of the 17th century; they kept it till 1755, when the Chinese annexed it.
Grum-Grshimailo found on the Pamir the butterfly Colias nastes, a species characteristic of Labrador and Lapland; like the alpine plants which bear witness to a Glacial period flora in the Himalayas, this butterfly is a survival of the Glacial period fauna of the Pamir.
Grum-Grshimailo's "Flora and Fauna of Pamir," in Izvestia of Russ.
Grum-Grshimailo, Opisanie Puteshestviya v Sapadniy Kitai (St Petersburg, 1897-1899); V.
Grum-Grshimailo, Along the E.