José Rizal (1861-1896) was a Filipino writer, activist, doctor, and political martyr. His execution at age 35 for the crime of rebellion was a turning point for the country he strove to defend with political literature and reform propaganda. Rizal's prosaic body of work echoes the social inequities and patriotic passion that would come to define the Philippines at the turn of the 19th century.
Apolinario Mabini (1864-1903) was a Filipino political philosopher and architect of the Philippine revolution. He formulated the principles of a democratic popular government, endowing the historical struggles
of the Filipino people with a coherent ideological orientation.