Externa sentence example

externa
  • It is represented either by a spina interna or by a spina externa, or by both, or they join to form a spina communis which is often very large and sometimes ends in a bifurcation.
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  • The fibrous theca externa merges with the surrounding stroma.
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  • The longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis externa is arranged in three longitudinal bands called taenia coli.
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  • Otitis externa refers to an infection of the ear canal (outer ear), the tube leading from the outside opening of the ear in towards the eardrum.
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  • Otitis externa is commonly referred to as swimmer's ear.
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  • Although all age groups are affected by otitis externa, children, adolescents, and young adults whose ears are exposed to persistent, excessive moisture develop the infection most often.
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  • Otitis externa occurs most often in warm climates and during the summer months, when more people are participating in water activities.
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  • Chidren and adolescents with otitis externa often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time, especially in polluted lakes, rivers, or ponds.
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  • Routine showering can also lead to otitis externa.
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  • Bacteria, fungi, and viruses have all been implicated in causing otitis externa.
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  • However, most commonly otitis externa is caused by bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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  • Other bacteria that can cause otitis externa include Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and bacteria of the family called Streptococci.
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  • Occasionally, fungi may cause otitis externa.
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  • Two types of viruses, called herpesvirus hominis and varicella-zoster virus, have also been identified as causing otitis externa.
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  • Other conditions predisposing to otitis externa include the use of cotton swabs to clean the ear canals.
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  • Hair spray or hair coloring, which can irritate the ear canal, may also lead to otitis externa.
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  • The first symptom of otitis externa is often itching of the ear canal, followed by watery discharge from the ear.
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  • In severe cases, otitis externa may be accompanied by fever.
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  • A serious and life-threatening type of otitis externa is called malignant otitis externa.
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  • In malignant otitis externa, a patient has usually had minor symptoms of otitis externa for some months, with pain and drainage.
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  • Diagnosis of uncomplicated otitis externa is usually quite simple.
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  • The symptoms alone, of ear pain worsened by any touch to the outer ear, are characteristic of otitis externa.
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  • If there is a need to identify the types of organisms causing otitis externa, the canal can be gently swabbed to obtain a specimen.
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  • If the rare infection malignant otitis externa is suspected, computed tomography scan (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans will be performed to determine how widely the infection has spread within bone and tissue.
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  • Otitis externa us usually not a dangerous condition and often clears up by itself within a few days.
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  • If the otitis externa infection is caused by the presence of a foreign body in the ear, the infection will not improve until the foreign body is removed.
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  • The prognosis is excellent for otitis externa, for it is usually easily treated.
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  • Left untreated, malignant otitis externa may spread sufficiently to cause death.
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  • Keeping the ear dry is an important aspect of prevention of otitis externa.
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  • The most serious complications of malignant otitis externa can be avoided by careful attention to early symptoms of ear pain and drainage from the ear canal.
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  • The walls of the GI tract have four layers of tissue, called mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa.
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  • Next to the submucosa is the muscularis externa, consisting of two layers of muscle fibers, one that runs lengthwise and one that encircles the bowel.
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