The name first appears in the list of primitive Zoroastrian settlements contained in the Vendidad Sade, where, however, like most of the names in the same list, - such as Sughudu (Sogdiana), Mouru (Mer y or Margus), Haraquiti (Arachotus or Arghand-ab), Haetumant (Etymander or Helmund), and Ragha (or Argha-stan),--it seems to apply to the river or river-basin, which was the special centre of population.
Through Arachosia and Drangiane, in the valley of the Etymander (Helmand), he marched to Carmania and Persis (Polyb.
(12) Parthyene with Parthaunisa, where the sepulchres of the kings were laid; (13) Apavarcticene (flow Abiward, with the capital Kelat); (14) Margiane (Merv); (i 5) Aria (Herat); (16) Anauon, the southern portion of Aria; (17) Zarangiane, the country of the Drangians, on the lake of Hamun; (18) Arachosia, on the Etymander (Helmand), called by the Parthians White India, extending as far as Alexandropolis (Kandahar), the frontier city of the Parthian Empire.
On the lower Etymander, the Sacae had established themselves obviously on the inroad of the Scythian tribesand after them the country was named Sacastene (now Sejistan, Seistan).
The Helmund, which is identical with the ancient Etymander, is the most important river in Afghanistan, next to the Kabul river, which it exceeds both in volume and length.
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