The essay appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society (1748).
Driver's essay in Hogarth's Authority and Archaeology; cf.
Macaulay, in his celebrated essay, has said that "of the conduct of Hastings at this time little is known."
In the year following his marriage Mendelssohn won the prize offered by the Berlin Academy for an essay on the application of mathematical proofs metaphysics, although among the competitors were Abbt and Kant.
Francis Fukuyama wrote a famous essay entitled "The End of History?" which became the catchphrase of the day.
Stewart, Boethius: an Essay (Edinburgh, 1891); T.
Testimony is also a First Principle (this is aimed against Hume's Essay on Miracles).
This idea of the continuity of species is developed more fully in a remarkable passage (Essay, bk.
Yet, in the words of Macaulay, who gives an admirable account of the discussion in his essay on the comic dramatists of the Restoration, "when all deductions have been made, great merit must be allowed to the work."
The meteoric charm of his conversation is well described in Stevenson's essay on "Talk and Talkers," under the name of Cockshot.
The first real advance towards their interpretation was made by Otfried Muller (Die Etrusker, 1828), who pointed out that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubinis (1833), finally determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the latest.
Other literary schemes of larger scope and deeper interest were long in contemplation, but were not destined to take effect - an Essay on the Religions of the World, a Commentary on the Gospels, a Life of Christ, a volume on Moral Ideas.
The essay was reviewed by Dr Johnson, and although it was resented by the medical profession it gained a reputation and a considerable practice for its author.
Among the very numerous modern studies may be named an essay by Leigh Hunt entitled "The Gentleman Saint" (The Seer, pt.
Modern commentators, who also print the various texts of the charter, are Richard Thomson, An Historical Essay on the Magna Carta of King John (1829); C. Bemont, in his Charles des libertes anglaises (1892); and W.
Ford's tract of Honor Triumphant, or the Peeres Challenge (printed 1606 and reprinted by the Shakespeare Society with the Line of Life, in 1843), and the simultaneously published verses The Monarches Meeting, or the King of Denmarkes Welcome into England, exhibit him as occasionally meeting the festive demands of court and nobility; and a kind of moral essay by him, entitled A Line of Life (printed 1620), which contains references to Raleigh, ends with a climax of fulsome praise to the address of King James I.
In 1757 Maxwell issued another work entitled The Practical Husbandman; being a collection of Miscellaneous papers on Husbandry, F&'c. In it the greater part of the Select Transactions is republished, with a number of new papers, among which an Essay on the Husbandry of Scotland, with a proposal for the improvement of it, is the most valuable.
Forchhammer, Jardine Prize Essay (Rangoon, 1885); Dr Mabel Bode, Sasanavamsa (London, 1897) (T.
More distinguished sympathizers are Edward Gibbon, who has the deistic spirit, and David Hume, the historian and philosophical sceptic, who has at least the letter of the deistic creed (Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion), and who uses Pascal's appeal to " faith " in a spirit of mockery (Essay on Miracles).
An essay on the passions of the mind (Passions de l'dme), which had been written originally for the princess Elizabeth, in development of some ethical views suggested by the De vita beata of Seneca, was enclosed at the same time for Chanut.
Teall, On the Potton and Wicken Phosphatic Deposits (Sedgwick Prize Essay for 1873) (1875) and "The Natural History of Phosphatic Deposits," Proc. Geol.
Of this a portion remains on the riverside, containing a room associated with Pope, who is said to have worked here upon the "Essay on Man."
He was educated at Glasgow University and Brasenose College, Oxford, where he won the Stanhope historical essay prize (1897) and the Newdigate prize for poetry (1898), and graduating first class in literae humaniores (1899).
Of this a portion remains on the riverside, containing a room associated with Pope, who is said to have worked here upon the "Essay on Man."
Pelham's essay in Trans.
1, essay ix.
And his Essay on the Human Understanding (1690) is almost a Bible to men of education during the same period; its lightest word treasured.
Some time before the publication of the essay, Gibbon had entered a new and, one might suppose, a very uncongenial scene of life.
And his Essay on the Human Understanding (1690) is almost a Bible to men of education during the same period; its lightest word treasured.
In the preface to a German translation of Bonnet's essay on Christian Evidences, Lavater publicly challenged Mendelssohn to refute Bonnet or if he could not then to "do what wisdom, the love of truth and honesty must bid him, what a Socrates would have done if he had read the book and found it unanswerable."
An able pamphlet attacking the administration of the marquess of Buckingham in 17 9 0 brought him to the notice of the Whig club; and in September 1791 he wrote a remarkable essay over the signature "A Northern Whig," of which Io,000 copies are said to have been sold.
In 18J5, however, Owen included under Lamarck's term Radiaria the Echinodermata, Anthozoa, Acalepha and Hydrozoa, while Agassiz also clung to the term Radiata as including Echinodermata, Acalepha and Polypi, regarding their separation into Coelenterata and Echinodermata as "an exaggeration of their anatomical differences" (Essay on Classification, London, 1859).
In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
Mr Swinburne, in his eloquent essay on Ford, has rightly shown what is the meaning of this tragedy, and has at the same time indicated wherein consists its poison.
C. Swinburne's "Essay on Ford" is reprinted among his Essays and Studies (1875).
The publication of my history fifteen years afterwards revived the memory of my first performance, and the essay was eagerly sought in the shops.
It has been a common mistake to think of Calvin and contemporary Reformers See Lightfoot's Essay in Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians.
Dr Maitland (essay on" The Universal Ordinary ") thinks, but without very much foundation, that great numbers especially of the more important causes were tried before these delegates; although the records have largely perished, since they were the records of courts ' which were dissolved as soon as their single cause had been decided.
Dr Maitland (essay on" The Universal Ordinary ") thinks, but without very much foundation, that great numbers especially of the more important causes were tried before these delegates; although the records have largely perished, since they were the records of courts ' which were dissolved as soon as their single cause had been decided.
There is an interesting essay by E.
(Essay, book iii.
to See Bishop Lightfoot's exhaustive essay in his volume on the Epistle to the Philippians.
From this time forth she led the life of a woman of letters, writing novels, of which The Minister's Wooing (18J9) is best known, and many studies of social life in the form both of fiction and essay.
When he wrote his Logic he had learned from Comte that the a posteriori method - in the form which he chose to call "inverse deduction" - was the only mode of arriving at truth in general sociology; and his admission of this at once renders the essay obsolete.
Of economic students, many are unaware of the fact that he wrote any other book than the Essay on the Principle of Population, and what is of permanent importance in that work is contained in the generalization which it suggested to Darwin.
At Valence also he wrote an essay for a prize instituted by his friend and literary adviser, Raynal, at the academy of Lyons.
Bonaparte's essay bore signs of study of Rousseau and of the cult of Lycurgus which was coming into vogue.
The latter part of the essay is remarkable for its fervid presentment of the charms of scenery and for vigorous declamation against the follies and a crimes of ambitious men.
science, long ago noticed, in 1833 brought out at Halle, where he was professor of Zoology, an essay with the title Pterylographiae Avium Pars prior.
Indeed, he only communicated copies of this essay to a few friends, and examples of it are comparatively scarce.
There was no need for us here to quote this essay in its chronological place, since it dealt only with the generalities of the subject, and did not enter upon any systematic details.
6 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress of 2 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr.
His Essay on the Connexion between the Doctrine of Justification by the Imputed Righteousness of Christ and Holiness of Life (1756) was his principal theological work.
His principal works are Remarks on the Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion (1820), an Essay on Faith (1822), and the Unconditional Freeness of the Gospel (1828).
For the coins von Sallet's Fiirsten von Palmyra (1866) must be read with his later essay in the Num.
See the essay in Walter Pater's Renaissance (1878); and the study by J.
In 1740 Maclaurin divided with Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli the prize offered by the French Academy of Sciences for an essay on tides.
The most valuable part of the work is that devoted to physical applications, in which he embodied his essay on the tides.
In 1866 he wrote in the Fortnightly Review (April and May) an essay on "Kinship in Ancient Greece," in which he proposed to test by early Greek facts the theory of the history of kinship set forth in Primitive Marriage; and three years later appeared a series of essays on "Totemism" in the same periodical for 1869-1870 (the germ of which had been contained in the paper just named), which mark the second great step in his systematic study of early society.
It is stated that an accidental introduction to Locke's great essay determined the ultimate direction of his studies.
Drew had begun to meditate a greater attempt before he wrote his Remarks on Paine; and, encouraged by the antiquary John Whitaker, he published his Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul in 1802.
In 1809 he published his Essay on the Identity and General Resurrection of the Human Body, perhaps the most original of his works, which reached a second edition in 1822.
He was an unsuccessful competitor for the Burnett prize offered in 1811 for an essay on the existence and attributes of God.
The essay contains a copious list of authorities and a history of the legend.
Robinson (Mme Darmesteter) and another (anonymous) in 1894, with an essay by G.
This broad and indefeasible principle he enunciated and defended in essay after essay, in lecture after lecture, until what at first was rejected as a paradox came in the end to be accepted as a commonplace.
It is thus a true letter, but in the grand style, verging on the nature not of an essay but a poem.
His part in the yellow fever controversies is indicated by La Roche (Yellow Fever in Philadelphia from 1699 to 1854, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1855) and by Bancroft (Essay on the Yellow Fever, London, 1811).
Thomas Clarkson obtained the first prize, translated his essay into English in an expanded form, and published it in 1786 with the title Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species.
In the process of its publication he was brought into contact with several persons already deeply interested in the question; amongst others with Granville Sharp, William Dillwyn (an American by birth, who had known Benezet), and the Rev. James Ramsay, who had lived nineteen years in St Christopher, and had published an Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of the African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies.
The History of the Revolution in England, breaking off at the point where William of Orange is preparing to intervene in the affairs of England, is chiefly interesting because of Macaulay's admiring essay on it and its author.
- The above sketch is largely based on the present writer's essay on Bede's Life and Works,prefixed to his edition of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, &c. (2 vols., Clarendon Press, 1896).
Illuminating discussions of them can be found in Humboldt's Essay, Saco's Papeles and Pezuela's Diccionario.
He also wrote an essay on Nachmanides, and a biography and critical appreciation of Rashba (1863).
Ducom, La Commune d'Agen: essay sur son histoire et son organisation depuis son origine jusqu'au traite de Bretigny (1892).
He, also edited and translated John Milton's De doctrina christiana, which was found in the State Paper office in 1823, and formed the text of Macaulay's famous essay on Milton.
Having studied theology and oriental languages at the universities of Wittenberg and GÃ¶ttingen, he went in 1755 as a tutor to Stockholm, and afterwards to Upsala; and while in Sweden he wrote in Swedish an Essay on the General History of Trade and of Seafaring in the most Ancient Times (1758).
Brandes first drew European attention to Nietzsche by his famous essay in 1889; since then an enormous literature has grown up round the subject.
Besides the works already noticed, Glanvill wrote Lux orientalis (1662); Philosophia pia (1671); Essays on Several Important Subjects in Philosophy and Religion (1676); An Essay concerning Preaching; and Sermons.
It was fortunate, no doubt, for Riemann that he had the kind advice and encouragement of Dirichlet himself, who was then on a visit at GÃ¶ttingen during the preparation of his essay; but the result was a memoir of such originality and refinement as showed that the pupil was fully the equal of the master.
Rest and exercise, however, temporarily restored his health, and he gave proof of the undiminished vigour of his powers by carrying off, in 1764, the prize offered by the Paris Academy of Sciences for the best essay on the libration of the moon.
This great work was the perfect realization of a design conceived by the author almost in boyhood, and clearly sketched in his first published essay.'
In the same year he published in the form of a letter to Payne Collier an amusing and extremely inconclusive essay on Shakespeare's legal acquirements.
He there says in words which recall the language of Locke (Essay, iii.
An appreciative essay on Wollaston will be found in George Wilson's Religio Chemici (1862).
Foremost among these stood the so-called " French " school, founded by George Bessenyei, the author of several dramatic pieces, and of an imitation of Pope's " Essay on Man," under the title of Az embernek probdja (Vienna, 1772).
It can be traced in his earliest essay, and it dictated the ravings of his final illness.
Lacroix's Traite elementaire du calcul des probabilites and De Morgan's Essay, published in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia.
Carlyle's essay on The Diamond Necklace (first published in 1837 in Fraser's Magazine) is of historical literary interest.
The last of these was that of Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who, whilst surveying all previous classifications, propounded a scheme of his own (Essay on Classification, 1859), in which, as well as in the criticisms he applies to other systems, the leading notion is that sub-kingdoms, classes, orders and families have a real existence, and that it is possible to ascertain and distinguish characters which are of class value, others which are cnly of ordinal value, and so on; so that the classes of one sub-kingdom should on paper, and in nature actually do, correspond in relative value to those of another sub-kingdom, and the orders of any one class similarly should be so taken as to be of equal value with those of another class, and have been actually so created.
Finally, in a complete edition of his works published shortly before his death Zarlino reprinted these three treatises, accompanied by a Tract on Patience, a Discourse on the True date of the Crucifixion of Our Lord, an essay on The Origin of the Capuchins, and the Resolution of Some Doubts Concerning the Correction of the Julian Calendar (Venice, 1589).'
Besides these memoirs and the very striking youthful essay of the Conjuration de Fiesque, Retz has left diplomatic papers, sermons, Mazarinades and correspondence in some considerable quantity.
On the historical and religious bearings of these two inscriptions the reader may be referred to the article "Cyrus" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica and the essay on "II.
About the same time William Charles Wells (1757-1817), a scientific investigator of remarkable power, and the author of a celebrated essay on dew, published observations on alterations in the urine, which, though little noticed at the time, were of great value as assisting in the important discovery made some years afterwards by Richard Bright.
Archbishop Benson left numerous writings, including a valuable essay on The Cathedral (London, 1878), and various charges and volumes of sermons and addresses.
Sir William Petty followed with his important inquiries upon the population (Essay on Political Arithmetic, 1683).
John Bell, clerk to the company, who wrote an essay during the great plague of 1665, had no records in his office of an earlier date than 1593, and he was not aware that his company had been engaged in registering births and deaths before that year.
The following books on the population of London have been published: John Graunt, Natural and Political Observations on the Bills of Mortality (1661, other editions 1662, 1665, 1676); Essay in Political Arithmetick (1683); Five Essays on Political Arithmetick (1687); Several Essays in Political Arithmetick (1699, 1711, 1751, 1 755); Essay concerning the Multiplication of Mankind (1682, 1683, 1686), all by Sir William Petty; Corbyn Morris, Observations on the past Growth and present State of the City of London (1751); Collection of the Yearly Bills of Mortality from 1657 to 1758 (ed.
1 759); Graunt's Observations, Petty's Another Essay and C. Morris's Observations are reprinted in this collection.
Like most quick-witted young men, he greeted this at first with enthusiasm; but its subsequent developments cooled his ardour and he was converted to more conservative counsels by Burke's Essay on the French Revolution, a translation of which into German (1794) was his first literary venture.
His literary output at this time, all inspired by a moderate Liberalism, was astounding, and included an essay on the results of the discovery of America, and another, written in French, on the English financial system (Essa y sur l'etat de l'administration des finances de la Grande-Bretagne, London, 1800).
Gentz used his enforced leisure to write a brilliant essay on "The relations between England and Spain before the outbreak of war between the two powers" (Leipzig, 1806); and shortly afterwards appeared Fragmente aus der neuesten Geschichte des politischen Gleichgewichts in Europa (translated s.t.
But, though he published nothing, his pen was not idle, and he was occupied with a series of essays on the future of Austria and the best means of liberating Germany and redressing the balance of Europe; though he himself confessed to his friend Adam Muller (August 4th, r806) that, in the miserable circumstances of the time, his essay on "the principles of a general pacification" must be taken as a "political poem."
Breislak also published an essay on the physical condition of the seven hills of Rome, which he regarded as the remains of a local volcano, - an opinion shown to be erroneous by the later researches of G.
In the 18th century the manufacture of vases de verre had become so neglected that the Academy of Sciences in 1 759 offered a prize for an essay on the means by which the industry might be revived (Labarte, Histoire des arts industriels).
In 1767, against Hume's advice, he published his Essay on the History of Civil Society, which was well received and translated into several European languages.
Barlow's principal works are - Elementary Investigation of the Theory of Numbers 0810; New Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1814); Essay on Magnetic Attractions (1820).
His chief writings were: An essay in Lux Mundi on "The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma" (1889); a paper, Belief in a Personal God (1891); Reason and Religion (1896), a protest against the limitation of the reason to the understanding; Ministerial Priesthood (1897); and Atonement and Personality (1901).
von Engelhardt, Das Christenthum Justins des Mdrtyrers; and Lightfoot's fragmentary essay in his Clement of Rome, ii.
His Das apostolische and das nachapostolische Zeitalter (1851), which developed out of a prize essay (1849), passed through three editions in Germany (3rd ed., 1885), and was translated into English (2 vols., 1886).
In 1814 he graduated with second-class honours, and in the next year he obtained the prize for the Latin essay.
In 1841 Daubeny published his Lectures on Agriculture; in 1857 his Lectures on Roman Husbandry; in 1863 Climate: an inquiry into the causes of its differences and into its influence on Vegetable Life; and in 1865 an Essay on the Trees and Shrubs of the Ancients, and a Catalogue of the Trees and Shrubs indigenous to Greece and Italy.
In 1868 he published an essay on the Pantheism of Spinoza.
with an essay "UTber den Zusammenhang der arabischen and griechischen Philosophie," 1900); Die Staatsleitung von Alfarabi in German, with an essay on "Das Wesen der arabischen Philosophie" (1904).
He was educated at Eton and at Balliol College, Oxford, winning the Arnold prize in 1868 for his essay, The American Colonies.
Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.
C. Bradley; Canon Rawnsley's Memories of the Tennysons (1900); Alfred Tennyson (1901), by Mr Andrew Lang; an essay on "The Mission of Tennyson" in Mr W.
iii.), whose essay, together with Professor Chamberlains Kojiki, the same authors introduction to The Classical Poetry of the Japanese, and Mr W.
In explanation of the fact that he did not essay this route in former times, it may be noted, first, that he had only a limited acquaintance with the wares in question; secondly, that Japanese connoisseurs never attached any value to their countrymens imitation of Chinese porcelains so long as the originals were obtainable; thirdly, that the ceramic art of China not having fallen into, its present state of decadence, the idea of competing with it did not occur to outsiders; and fourthly, that Europe and America had not developed their present keen appreciation of Chinese masterpieces.
She published An Essay on Slavery and Abolition with Reference to the Duty of American Females (1837), A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1842), The True Remedy for the Wrongs of Women (1851), Letters to the People on Health and Happiness (1855), The Religious Training of Children (1864), and Woman's Profession as Mother and Educator (1871).
This is a curious book, partly explanatory of Defoe's ideas on morality, and partly belonging to a series of demonological works which he wrote, and of which the chief others are A System of Magic (1726), and An Essay on the History of Apparitions (1728), issued the year before under another title.
The most curious example of this inconsistency, or rather of this indifference to general principle, occurs in his Essay on Projects.
The reasons urged against the contention that the priestly legislation and the Elohistic narratives were separated by a space of 500 years were so strong as to induce Graf, in an essay, "Die sogenannte Grundschrift des Pentateuchs," published shortly before his death, to regard the whole Grundschrift as post-exilic and as the latest portion of the Pentateuch.
He now bought an estate at Dawley, near Uxbridge, where he renewed his intimacy with Pope, Swift and Voltaire, took part in Pope's literary squabbles, and wrote the philosophy for the Essay on Man.
In 1738 he visited England, became one of the leading friends and advisers of Frederick, prince of Wales, who now headed the opposition, and wrote for the occasion The Patriot King, which together with a previous essay, The Spirit of Patriotism, and The State of Parties at the Accession of George I., were entrusted to Pope and not published.
In surgery his writings are important and interesting, but they do not bear the same character of caution as the treatises on medicine; for instance, in the essay On Injuries of the Head, he advocates the operation " of trephining " more strongly and in wider classes of cases than would be warranted by the experience of later times.
Authorities.-A useful essay is that of "Miss X" (Miss Goodrich Freer) in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, v.
1687), author of the Essay on the Sermon, and Jacques Saurin (d.
In May 1709 he returned to the subject, and printed another letter, entitled Sensus Communis, an Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour.
In the same year he published his essay on comets, Conamen Novi Systematis Cometarum, which was occasioned by the appearance of the comet of 1680.
This essay, and his next publication, entitled De Gravitate Aetheris, were deeply tinged with the philosophy of Rene Descartes, but they contain truths not unworthy of the philosophy of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia.
Some years after his return to Basel he published an essay, entitled Nouvelle Theorie de la manoeuvre des vaisseaux.
The first essay in the book, "The Education of the World," was by Dr Temple.
Temple's essay had treated of the intellectual and spiritual growth of the race, and had pointed out the contributions made respectively by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and others.
Temple refused, so long as the storm lasted, to comply with the request that he would repudiate his associates, and it was only at a much later date (1870) that he saw fit quietly to withdraw his essay.
Being more limited in subject and more independent as a work of literary art, this essay detaches itself from the main body of the Discorsi, and has attracted far more attention.
(Cambridge, 1903), contains an essay on Machiavelli by L.
But, though a few of the leading thoughts of this chapter may be obvious, we are plunged into problems that all but defy solution when we essay to discover its origin or interpret its details.
His views were further defined in Christianity and Hinduism (Cambridge, 1856), an expansion of the Muir prize essay which he had won in 1848.
Wild, Thalassa: an Essay on the Depths, Temperature and Currents of the Ocean (London, 1877); C. D.
John Norris of Bemerton also strongly influenced him by his Essay on the Ideal World (1701-1704).
Impey (2 vols., London, 1885); Lord Macaulay's Essay on "Warren Hastings"; G.
Such was the origin of the work, written in four weeks, the Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung (Essay towards a Critique of all Revelation).
The problem which Fichte dealt with in this essay was one not yet handled by Kant himself, the relations of which to the critical philosophy furnished matter for surmise.
Fichte sent his essay to Kant, who approved it highly, extended to the author a warm reception, and exerted his influence to procure a publisher.
To these were added in 1797 a First and a Second Introduction to the Theory of Science, and an Essay towards a new Exposition of the Theory of Science.
Forberg (1770-1848) an essay on the "Development of the Idea of Religion."
With much of the essay he entirely agreed, but he thought the exposition in so many ways defective and calculated to create an erroneous impression, that he prefaced it with a short paper On the Grounds of our Belief in a Divine Government of the Universe, in which God is defined as the moral order of the universe, the eternal law of right which is the foundation of all our being.
A delightful essay on Garrick appeared in the Quarterly Review (July 1868), directing attention to the admirable criticisms of Garrick's acting in 1775 in the letters of G.
Besides the general works on modern Italy, see the Marquis Costa de Beauregard's interesting volumes La Jeunesse du roi Charles Albert (Paris, 1899) and Novare et Oporto (1890), based on the king's letters and the journal of Sylvain Costa, his faithful equerry, though the author's views are those of an old-fashioned Savoyard who dislikes the idea of Italian unity; Ernesto Masi's Il Segreto del Re Carlo Alberto (Bologna, 1891) is a very illuminating essay; Domenico Perrero, Gli Ultim2 Reali di Savoia (Turin, 1889); L.
Thus we have two poems of Aratus, who, though not resident at Alexandria, was so thoroughly imbued with the Alexandrian spirit as to be with reason included in the school; the one is an essay on astronomy, the other an account of the signs of the weather.
See Anna Seward, Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804); and Charles Darwin, Life of Erasmus Darwin, an introduction to an essay on his works by Ernst Krause (1879).
As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was afterwards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen?
From the outset English philosophy had a leaning to the psychological point of view, and Locke was only carrying on the tradition of his predecessors and particularly of Hobbes in definitely accepting it as the basis of his Essay.
Ottley (1894), and Dean Church's essay in Masters in English Theology.
His first learned production was a Latin translation of Benjamin Kennicott's Dissertation on the State of the Printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament (1756), which was followed the next year by an essay in which he expounded his own critical principles.
How little his heart was with it was shown by the labour he soon undertook of translating and prefacing Schleiermacher's essay on the Gospel of St Luke.
In 1784 he wrote an essay on balloons, and his loge of Vauban, read by him publicly, won him the commendation of Prince Henry of Prussia.
Having obtained the prize for an essay on "the kind of free government best adapted to Italy" he decided upon the career of a publicist.
Under the Restoration he was one of the chief editors of the Minerve francaise; he wrote also an essay, Sur le 18 Brumaire (1799), some Fragments politiques et litteraires (1817), and a treatise Des partis politiques et des factions de la pretendue aristocratie d'aujourd'hui (1819).
In 1856 he published a valuable essay on Calderon,with a translation of a portion of Life is a Dream in the original metre.
Other works attributed to him were: - A Treatise on Discoveries; Respecting Good and Evil Things; On Remarkable Things in Various Countries (it is doubtful whether these were separate works, or merely extracts from the Histories); A Treatise on my Country, on the history and antiquities of Cyme, and an essay On Style, his only rhetorical work, which is occasionally mentioned by the rhetorician Theon.
The essay as he gave it had no forerunner in modern literature and no direct ancestor in the literature of classical times.
Beginning with the throwing together of a few stray thoughts and quotations linked by a community of subject, the author by degrees acquires more and more certainty of hand, until he produces such masterpieces of apparent desultoriness and real unity as the essay "Sur des vers de Virgile."
The academy of Dijon offered a prize for an essay on the effect of the progress of civilization on morals.
The anecdotage as to the origin of this famous essay is voluminous.
The essay, however, took the artificial and crotchety society of the day by storm.
In 1773 he made his first appearance as an author with a Philosophical Essay on Man.
He remained devoted to his profession, and in 1775 published in London a little Essay on Gleets, and in Amsterdam a French translation of the first two volumes of his Essay on Man.
In the same year there appeared the third volume of the French edition of the Essay on Man, which reached Ferney, and exasperated Voltaire, by its onslaught on Helvetius, into a sharp attack which only made the young author more conspicuous.
(1887) for the Rolls Series, with an introductory essay by F.
He obtained a second class and the chancellor's English essay prize, and was elected a fellow of Exeter College (1842).
The principles laid down in this famous essay form the key to Louis Blanc's whole political career.
Maine cannot have known much Roman law in 1847, but in 1856 he contributed to the Cambridge Essays the essay on Roman law and legal education, republished in the later editions of Village Communities, which was the first characteristic evidence of his genius.
This essay on India was his contribution to the composite work entitled The Reign of Queen Victoria (ed.
In the concluding lines of this essay, Montaigne seems to turn to " nostre foy chrestienne " as man's only succour from his native state of helplessness and uncertainty.
Among his religious and philosophical writings were: - Seraphic Love, written in 1648, but not published till 1660; an Essay upon the Style of the Holy Scriptures (1663); Occasional Reflections upon Several Subjects (1665), which was ridiculed by Swift in A Pious Meditation upon a Broomstick, and by Butler in An Occasional Reflection on Dr Charlton's Feeling a Dog's Pulse at Gresham College; Excellence of Theology compared with Natural Philosophy (1664); Some Considerations about the Reconcileableness of Reason and Religion, with a Discourse about the Possibility of the Resurrection (1675); Discourse of Things above Reason (1681); High Veneration Man owes to God (1685); A Free Inquiry into the vulgarly received Notion of Nature (1686); and the Christian Virtuoso (1690).
Mozley's Essay on Laud; Archbishop Laud, by A.
Later, Ignatius Loyola wished to essay the task of conversion, but was forbidden.
The author of the first essay, C. S.
The scheme of 1892 reduced the number of hours assigned to Latin from 77 to 62, and laid special stress on the German essay; but the modern training given by the Realgymnasium was still unrecognized as an avenue to a university education.
4 See further Driver's essay in Hogarth's Authority and Archaeology (1899), pp. 3 2 -34; or his Book of Genesis (1904, 7th ed., 1909), p. xxxi.
This selection includes the essay on "Beauty" contributed to the Ency.
(1881); and an essay by Lewis E.
(1652); An Essay on the First Book of T.
Lives by Collins (1732), Charlton and Melvil (1738), were followed by Nares's biography in three of the most ponderous volumes (1828-1831) in the language; this provoked Macaulay's brilliant but misleading essay.
i-8, and that noble essay to build a complete national code on the principle of love to God, righteousness, and humanity - the legislation of Deuteronomy.
He won the Chancellor's Latin verse at Oxford in 1827, and the Latin essay in 1831, and took a first-class in classics.
Ashley's essay in Compatriots Club Lectures (1905) on "Political Economy and the Tariff Problem."
In an epoch-making essay, On the Parallelism between the Different stages of Life in the individual and those in the entire group of the Molluscous Order Tetrabranchiata (1866), and in a number of subsequent memoirs, among which Genesis of the Arietidae (1889) and Phylogeny of Characteristic (1894) should be mentioned, he laid the foundations, by methods of the most exact analysis, for all future recapitulation work of invertebrate palaeontologists.
Gell, Essay toward the Amendment of the Authorized Version (1659); W.
But of all his works the most delightful is his Essay on the Literary Character (1795), which, like most of his writings, abounds in illustrative anecdotes.
From 1796 date the Briefe Ã¼ber Dogmatismus and Kriticismus, an admirably written critique of the ultimate issues of the Kantian system; from 1797 the essay entitled Neue Deduction des Naturrechts, which to some extent anticipated Fichte's treatment in the Grundlage des Naturrechts, published in 1796, but not before Schelling's essay had been received by the editors of the Journal.'
The History has been discussed and criticized in a great number of publications, the most important of which, perhaps, is Sir George Cornwall Lewis's Essay on the Credibility of the Early Roman History.
The abundant vintage of that year drew his attention to the defective methods in use for estimating the cubical contents of vessels, and his essay on the subject (Nova Stereometria Doliorum, Linz, 1615) entitles him to rank among those who prepared the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus.
His precocity was remarkable; his first dramatic essay, Pepin el jorobado, was placed on the Barcelona stage when he was fourteen years of age, and at nineteen he was publicly "crowned" after the production of his second play, Don Enrique el Dadivoso.
In England this essay, which was regarded and treated as a plea for deism, made a great sensation, calling forth several replies, among others from William Whiston, Bishop Hare, Bishop Hoadly, and Richard Bentley, who, under the signature of Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, roughly handles certain arguments carelessly expressed by Collins, but triumphs chiefly by an attack on trivial points of scholarship, his own pamphlet being by no means faultless in this very respect.
It contains an easy and accurate method for calculating eclipses; an essay on colour, in which three primary colours are recognized; a catalogue of 998 zodiacal stars; and a memoir, the earliest of any real value, on the proper motion of eighty stars, originally communicated to the Gottingen Royal Society in 1760.
He then studied at the university of Marburg, where he wrote his first essay, Ubersicht der geologischen Verhaltnisse des Herzogtums Nassau (1847).
The hydrometer is said by Synesius Cyreneus in his fifth letter to have been invented by Hypatia at Alexandria,' but appears to have been neglected until it was reinvented by Robert Boyle, whose "New Essay Instrument," as described in the Phil.
The correction for temperature thus afforded was not sufficiently accurate for excise purposes, and William Speer in his essay on the hydrometer (Tilloch's Phil.
characteristics of Fahrenheit's hydrometer and of Boyle's essay instrument.
During his career at Dublin the works of Descartes and Newton were superseding the older text-books, and the doctrines of Locke's Essay were eagerly discussed.
In 1721, during the disturbed state of social relations consequent on the bursting of the South Sea bubble, he published an Essay towards preventing the Ruin of Great Britain, which shows the intense interest he took in practical affairs.
He took Sir William Browne's medal for a Greek ode in 1846 and 1847, the Members' Prize for a Latin essay in 1847 as an undergraduate and in 1849 as a bachelor.
In 1851 he published his Norrisian prize essay with the title Elements of the Gospel Harmony.
In 1860 he expanded his Norrisian essay into an Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, a work remarkable for insight and minuteness of study, as well as for reverential treatment combined with considerable freedom from traditional lines.
This conception is traced in lines too firm to be those of a first essay; it had doubtless grown up as an integral part of the religious protest against the Hasmonaeans.
Radcliffe wrote An essay towards the life of my Lord Strafford, from which the material for the various lives of the statesman has been largely taken.
In March 1834, when he was but fifteen, Loudon's Magazine of Natural History published an essay of his on the strata of mountains and an inquiry as to the colour of the Rhine.
It appeared in the same year with the Construction of Sheepfolds - a plea for the reunion of Christian churches - in the same year with the essay on Pre-Raphaelitism, the year of Turner's death (19th December).
A journey to Greece in 1853 prompted his essay On the Living Language of the Greeks, a favourite theme of his, especially in his later years; he adopted for himself a modern Greek pronunciation, and before his death he endowed a travelling scholarship to enable students to learn Greek at Athens.
His published works include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad (1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece (1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws (1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and the Ideal of Humanity (1893).
The chief of his numerous works is an Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language (London, 1668), in which he expounds a new universal language for the use of philosophers.
These consisted of the essay on habit (Sur l'influence de l'habitude, 1803), a critical review of P. Laromiguiere's lectures (1817), and the philosophical portion of the article "Leibnitz" in the Biographie universelle (1819).
In 1834 these writings, together with the essay entitled Nouvelles considerations sur les rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, were published by Victor Cousin, who in 1841 added three volumes, under the title CEuvres philosophiques de Maine de Biran.
About this time the Institute proposed as a subject for an essay this question, - "What is the influence of symbols on the faculty of thought ?"
His essay Du perfectionnement moral et del' education de soi-meme was crowned by the French Academy in 1825.
de Mas Latrie, Histoire de l'ile de Chypre (Paris, 1852-1861); and Horatio Brown's essay in his Studies in Venetian History (London, 1907), which gives the best sketch of the queen's career and a list of authorities.
Hence in his Philosophical Journal in 1798 Fichte prefaced a sceptical essay of Forberg by an essay of his own, in which he used the famous words, " The living moral order is God; we need no other God, and can comprehend no other."
In England, the land of Bacon and Locke, the realistic tendency has been more active, and is exhibited in Bacon's Novum organum and De Augmentis scientiarum, as well as to a less degree in the Fourth Book of Locke's Essay.
Besides the above-mentioned, Price wrote an Essay on Me Population of England (2nd ed., 1780); two Fast-day Sermons, published respectively in 1779 and 1781; and Observations on the importance of the American Revolution and the means of rendering it a benefit to the World (1784).
Even in 1892 Spiiller, in his essay upon Lamennais, pointed out how the latest evolution of Catholicism was taking the course indicated by Lamennais in his Livre du peuple (1837), and how the hermit of " La Chenaie," who departed this life in bitter strife with Rome, declared himself to be the actual precursor of modern Christian Socialism.
His literary career began in 1842 with the publication of an essay, in Russian, on Dilettantism in Science, under the pseudonym of "Iskander," the Turkish form of his Christian name - convicts, even when pardoned, not being allowed in those days to publish under their own names.
Rouse Ball, An Essay on Newton's Principia (1893); Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences (1837); J.
His inaugural dissertation was an essay on screw-surfaces.
Treitschke, Deutsche Geschichte (Leipzig, 1879-1894), and essay on Ancillon in Preussische Jahrbiicher for April 1872; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, s.v.
Myres's essay referred to above, § iii.
The physiological school of physiognomy was foreshadowed by Parsons and founded by Sir Charles Bell, whose Essay on the Anatomy of the Expression, published in 1806, was the first scientific study of the physical manifestation of emotions in the terms of the muscles which produce these manifestations.
In the later editions of this essay the thesis is elaborated with greater detail.
Among the latter were (besides histories of the campaigns in which he served), Life of Sir Thomas Munro (3 vols., 1830); History of India (4 vols., 1830-1835); The Leipsic Campaign and Lives of Military Commanders (1831); Story of the Battle of Waterloo (1847); Sketch of the Military History of Great Britain (1845); Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan (1847); biographies of Lord Clive (1848), the duke of Wellington (1862), and Warren Hastings (1848; the subject of Macaulay's essay, in which it is described as "three big bad volumes full of undigested correspondence and undiscerning panegyric").
In the fourth essay he remarks, "I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude that all elastic fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat and that for any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is proportionally something less, the higher the temperature..
Another of his writings was an Essay on the Divine Authority of the New Testament.
In 1759 he published Philotas, a prose tragedy in one act, and also a complete collection of his fables, preceded by an essay on the nature of the fable.
Soon after settling in Wolfenbiittel, Lessing found in the library the manuscript of a treatise by Berengarius of Tours on transubstantiation in reply to Lanfranc. This was the occasion of Lessing's powerful essay on Berengarius, in which he vindicated the latter's character as a serious and consistent thinker.
Hamilton's most important work is the Essay on the National Debt, which appeared in 1813 and was undoubtedly the first to expose the economic fallacies involved in Pitt's policy of a sinking fund.
Some minor works of a practical character (Introduction to Merchandise, 1 777; Essay on War and Peace, 1790) are now forgotten.
In Locke, indeed, such theory is not wanting, but, of all the many inconsistencies in the Essay on the Human Understanding, none is more apparent or more significant than the complete want of harmony between the view of knowledge developed in the fourth book and the psychological principles laid down in the earlier part of the work.
Though Locke, doubtless, drew no distinction between the problems of psychology and of theory of knowledge, yet the discussion of the various forms of cognition given in the fourth book of the Essay seems to be based on grounds quite distinct from and in many respects inconsistent with the fundamental psychological principle of his work.
The terms wh: ch he employs in describing the aim and scope of his work are not those which we should now employ, but the declaration, in the introduction to the Treatise, that the science of human nature must be treated according to the experimental method, is in fact equivalent to the statement of the principle implied in Locke's Essay, that the problems of psychology and of theory of knowledge are identical.
It is impossible for any reader of Mill's remarkable posthumous essay on theism to avoid the reflection that in substance the treatment is identical with that of the Dialogues on Natural Religion, while on the whole the superiority in critical force must be assigned to the earlier work.
Of his other writings two biblical studies were of some importance, his Kritische Untersuchungen fiber die alttestamentliche Chronik (1834), and his Latin essay on the two recensions of the text of Jeremiah, De utriusque recensionis vaticiniorum Jeremiae ...indole et origine (1837).
In the following year he published the first edition of his great work, An Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr Godwin, M.
Malthus's Essay on Population grew out of some discussions which he had with his father respecting the perfectibility of society.
It was in this way the Essay saw the light.
The essay in which he had studied a hypothetic future led him to examine the effects of the principle he had put forward on the past and present state of society; and he undertook an historical examination of these effects, and sought to draw such inferences in relation to the actual state of things as experience seemed to warrant.
He himself tells us that when, after the publication of the original essay, the main argument of which he had deduced from David Hume, Robert Wallace, Adam Smith and Richard Price, he began to inquire more closely into the subject, he found that "much more had been done" upon it "than he had been aware of."
The laborious apparatus of historical and statistical facts respecting the several countries of the globe, adduced in the altered form of the essay, though it contains a good deal that is curious and interesting, establishes no general result which was not previously well known.
Practically every treatise on economics deals with Malthus and his essay, but the following special works may be referred to: Soetbeer, Die Stellung der Sozialisten zur Malthusschen Bevälkerungslehre (Berlin, 1886); G.
During this period he made his first essay in preaching, and proved himself to be possessed of very popular gifts.
Broadley's Dr Johnson and Mrs Thrale, 1909), containing, together with new materials and portraits, an essay dealing with Macaulay's treatment of the Johnson-Thrale episodes by T.
Faber, Essay on Beatification, Canonization, &c. (London, 1848); A.
Tarbell, The Early Life of Lincoln (New York, 1896) and Life of Abraham Lincoln (2 vols., New York, 1900), containing new material to which too great prominence and credence is sometimes given; Carl Schurz, Abraham Lincoln: An Essay (Boston, 1891), a remarkably able estimate; Ward H.
In 1877 appeared The Unknown Eros, which unquestionably contains his finest work in poetry, and in the following year Amelia, his own favourite among his poems, together with an interesting, though by no means undisputable, essay on English Metrical Law.
Gosse, Coventry Patmore (1905, "Literary Lives" series), and an essay by Mrs Meynell prefixed to the selection (1905) in the "Muses' Library."
The appointment was immediately followed by the appearance of his Burnet prize essay on Theism.
But he was none the less a power behind the workers, and for its political effect, Political Justice takes its place with Milton's Areopagitica, with Locke's Essay on Education and with Rousseau's Emile.
Godwin's more important works are - The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness (1793); Things as they are, or the Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794); The Inquirer, a series of Essays (1797); Memoirs of the Author of the Rights of Woman (1798); St Leon, a Tale of the Sixteenth Century (1799); Antonio, a Tragedy (1800); The Life of Chaucer (1803); Fleetwood, a Novel (1805); Faulkner, a Tragedy (1807); Essay on Sepulchres (1809); Lives of Edward and John Philips, the Nephews of Milton (1815); Mandeville, a Tale of the Times of Cromwell (1817); Of Population, an answer to Malthus (1820); History of the Commonwealth (1824-1828); Cloudesley, a Novel (1830); Thoughts on Man, a series of Essays (1831); Lives of the Necromancers (1834).
We want, for example, an exhaustive classification and discussion of all the Jewish elements in the Koran; a praiseworthy beginning was made in Geiger's youthful essay Was hat Mohamed aus dean Judenthum aufgenommen ?
Noldeke's range of studies has been wide and varied, but in the main his work has followed the two lines already indicated by his prize essay, Semitic languages, and the history and civilization of Islam.
He despised German as the language of boors, although it is remarkable that at a later period, in a French essay on German literature, he predicted for it a great future.
He took the Hulsean prize in 1808 for his Essay on the Origin and Intention of Sacrifices.
This canto was afterwards dedicated to him, and a revised edition of a part of his notes entitled Historical illustrations of the fourth canto of "Childe Harold" containing dissertations on the ruins of Rome and an essay on Italian literature, was published in 1818.
He devoted himself to the study of English philosophers, especially Berkeley, and published a Collected Edition of the Works of Bishop Berkeley with Annotations, &c. (1871; enlarged 1901), a Biography of Berkeley (1881), an Annotated Edition of Locke's Essay (1894), the Philosophy of Theism (1896) and the Biography of Thomas Reid (1898).
Schurz published a volume of Speeches (1885); Henry Clay (1887) in the "American Statesmen" series, a standard biography; Abraham Lincoln (1889), a remarkable essay; and Reminiscences (New York, 3 vols., 1907-1908), in the third volume of which is a sketch of his life and public services from 1869 to 1906 by Frederic Bancroft and William A.
Wright, An Essay towards the History of Hexham (1823); James Hewitt, A Handbook to Hexham and its Antiquities (1879).
In February 1871 he seconded the Address in the House of Lords; a more original effort followed in November 1871, when he delivered a remarkable essay on the Union of Scotland and England at the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution.
An essay Adversus fraudes Apollinaristarum and two homilies are referred to other hands, the homilies to a Leontius, presbyter of Constantinople.
With an unselfish generosity which must always shine in the history of science, and indeed of the human race, Darwin proposed at once to communicate his correspondent's essay to the Linnaean Society of London, but was persuaded by his friends to send with it an outline of his own views.
But it is as yet neither narrative nor essay.
Except his essay on" The Protestant Church in France," published in 1856 in Cambridge Essays, his remaining works are likewise archaeological.
From this to attempts to beautify the art of modern printing was but a short step. The House of the Wolfings, printed in 1889 at the Chiswick Press, was the first essay in this direction; and in the same year, in The Roots of the Mountains, he carried his theory a step further.
In 1766 he received a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences for an essay on the best means of lighting a large town; and among his early work were papers on the analysis of gypsum, on thunder, on the aurora and on congelation, and a refutation of the prevalent belief that water by repeated distillation is converted into earth.
of writing a letter or a report on a particular subject with a particular object in view, of translating from or into a foreign language, of solving a mathematical problem, of criticizing a passage from a literary work, of writing an essay on an historical or literary subject with the aid of books in a library, of diagnosing the malady of a patient, of analysing a chemical mixture or compound; and (the highest form under the rubric) of making an original contribution to learning or science as the result of personal investigation or experiment.
- Outlines of Mineralogy (2 vols., 1809); A Geologi, cal Essay on the Imperfect Evidence in Support of a Theory of the Earth (1815); On the Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of Man, 1833 (Bridgewater Treatise).
Heeren (1813) which forms the basis of the interesting essay by Carlyle (Misc. Essays, ii.); H.
Mill's Essay on Liberty with an argument for immortality, based on the yearning of the affections to regain communion with the beloved dead, - on the impossibility of standing up and living, if we believed the separation were final.
In the autumn of 1788 he entered at Tubingen as a student of theology; but he showed no interest in theology: his sermons were a failure, and he found more congenial reading in the classics, on the advantages of studying which his first essay was written.
It was an essay on the difference between the philosophic systems of Fichte and Schelling, tending in the main to support the latter.
So latent was the difference between them at this epoch that in one or two cases it is not possible to determine by whom the essay was written.
Hegel in his essay, which was republished at Stuttgart, supported the royal proposals, and animadverted on the backwardness of the bureaucracy and the landed interests.
His last literary work, the first part of which appeared in the Preussische Staatszeitung, was an essay on the English Reform Bill of 1831.
The intimate psychological study of four minds, which forms the subject of the Wahlverwandtschaften, was an essay in a new type of fiction, and pointed out the way for developments of the German novel after the stimulus of Wilhelm Meister had exhausted itself.
(Turin, 18 59-74), the most important are the New Essay on the Origin of Ideas (Eng.
Lecky's essay in the revised edition of his Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland vol.
Among his other works may be mentioned Poems, Travels in Russia, Essay on Painting, Correspondence.
3 The title of an instructive essay by Sir W.
One of them has left an essay, expounding his father's theory of the intellect.
It is a treatise entitled Philosophy and Theology, and, with the exception of a German version of the essay on the conjunction of the intellect with man, is the first translation which enables the non-Semitic scholar to form any adequate idea of Averroes.
In addition we may also mention his essay on the calculus of variations (Mem.
His publications include Meteorological Essays (1823), an Essay on Artificial Climate considered in its Applications to Horticulture (1824), which showed the necessity of a humid atmosphere in hothouses devoted to tropical plants, and an Introduction to the Study of Chemical Philosophy (1839).
A very comprehensive essay on Hamann is to be found in Hegel's Vermischte Schriften, ii.
In Glasgow Stewart boarded in the same house with Archibald Alison, author of the Essay on Taste, and a lasting friendship sprang up between them.
As a student in Glasgow he wrote an essay on Dreaming.
Mr Gore himself contributed an essay on "The Holy Spirit and Inspiration."
The change of view is illustrated clearly in the essay, published in the Tiibinger Zeitschrift for 1831, on the Christ-party in the Corinthian Church, Die Christuspartei in der korinthischen Gemeinde, der Gegensatz des paulinischen and petrinischen in der eiltesten Kirche, der A postel Petrus in Rom, the trend of which is suggested by the title.
' On this event, see a remarkable essay by Barbier de Meynard in the Journal Asiatique for March-April, 1869.
trans., 1834); Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige (GÃ¶ttingen, 1808; French trans., Paris, 1808), a prize essay of the Institute of France.
Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (1897), Essay I.
From a point of view purely subjectivist he is prepared to explain all that is to be left standing of what Locke ascribes to the workmanship of the mind by the principle of association or customary conjunction of ideas, which Locke had added a chapter to a later edition of his Essay explicitly to reject as an explanatory formula.
Locke's Essay of Human Understanding, iv.
The most notable of these are Berkeley's treatment of " abstract " 1 Condillac, Langue des Calculs, p. 7.2 Locke, Essay, iii.
8 Essay, iv.
It is comprised 3 in an early essay on the mistaken subtlety of the syllogistic figures, and a late compilation by a pupil from the introductory matter and ' Nouveaux essais, iv.
3 Kant's Introduction to Logic and his Essay on the Mistaken Subtlety of the Four Figures, trans.
The history of logic is indeed so little intelligible apart from constant reference to tendencies in philosophical development as a whole, that the historian, when he has made the requisite preparatory studies, inclines to essay the more ambitious task.
Tufnell and Cornewall Lewis, 1830, including the essay fiber die Makedonier, on the settlements, origin and early history of the Macedonians).
Donaldson's essay On the Life and Writings of Karl Otfried Muller in vol.
The composition of two such lines by the algebraic 1 Theory of Conjugate Functions, or Algebraic Couples, with a Preliminary and Elementary Essay on Algebra as the Science of Pure Time, read in 1833 and 1835, and published in Trans.
Wattenbach, and his doctor's dissertation, De Arnulfo Francorum rege (Berlin, 1852), was a notable essay.
At his university he took the Stanhope prize for an essay on the marquess Wellesley in 1877, became lecturer at Pembroke College in 1887, and fellow of All Souls College in 1 9 01.
In 1832 Doubleday published an Essay on Mundane Moral Government, and in 1842 he attacked some of the principles of Malthus in his True Law of Population.
Zahm, Evolution and Dogma (1896); John Henry Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (1845); Edward Caird, The Evolution of Religion (1893); Otto Pfleiderer, Philosophy of Religion (Eng.
In 1723 a later edition appeared, including An Essay on Charity and Charity Schools, and A Search into the Nature of Society.
Berkeley attacked it in the second dialogue of the Alciphron (1732) and John Brown criticized him in his Essay upon Shaftesbury's Characteristics (1751).
The Principles was followed in 1790 by his first essay in the field of Christian apologetics, Horae Paulinae, or the Truth of the Scripture History of St Paul evinced by a Comparison of the Epistles which bear his Name with the Acts of the Apostles and with one another, probably the most original of its author's works.
An Essay on the Life and Writings of Samuel Bochart, by W.
Blackwell (Professor of Greek at Aberdeen) had insisted, in a book published in 1735, on the "naturalness" of Homer; and Wood (Essay on the Original Genius of Homer, London, 1769) was the first who maintained that Homer composed without the help of writing, and supported his thesis by ancient authority, and also by the parallel of Ossian.
Of the earlier books Wood's Essay on the Original Genius and Writings of Homer is the most interesting.
de Sanctis's essay "L'Uomo del Guicciardini," in his Nuovi Saggi critici (Naples, 1879), and many passages in Professor P. Villari's Machiavelli (Eng.
After his election to the Oriel fellowship Keble gained the University prizes, both for the English essay and also for the Latin essay.
The logical order of an essay which attempts to show how Renaissance was correlated to Reformation and CounterReformation has necessitated the treatment of Italy, Germany and Spain in succession; for these three nations were the three main agents in the triple process to be analysed.
- The special articles on the several arts and the literatures of modern Europe, and on the biographies of great men mentioned in this essay, will give details of necessity here omitted.
John Stuart Mill (Essay on Religion) preferred to disbelieve in the omnipotence of God rather than forgo the belief in His goodness.
The fourth essay is a systematic treatment of the nature of colour, with a description of many curious experiments and a discussion of the rainbow, halos, parhelia, diffraction, and the more purely physiological phenomena of colour.
This was followed by a series of " Physiological Letters " in the Allgemeine Zeitung, by an essay on " Glauben and Wissen," and by the most important piece of this series, " Der Kampf urn die Seele by (Gottingen, 1857).
In his first important political essay, "The South Carolina Exposition," prepared by him in the summer of 1828, he showed how this should be done.
Sir William Temple in his Essay on Ancient and Modern Learning), though others, as Politianus and Erasmus, perceived that they were not by Phalaris.
pp. 46-384; article by Groebe in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencycloplidie; and a short but vivid sketch by de Quincey in his Essay on the Caesars.
His essay Utilitarianism (pub.
In the Annals of Philosophy (1820, 16, p. 273) is to be found an English translation of Oersted's original Latin essay (entitled " Experiments on the Effect of a Current of Electricity on the Magnetic Needle "), dated the 21st of July 1820, describing his discovery.
This great investigator and luminous expositor just before that time had published his celebrated essay, Die Erhaltung der Kraft (" The Conservation of Energy "), which brought to a focus ideas which had been accumulating in consequence of the work of J.
Green's Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism, published in 1828, contains the first exposition of the theory of potential.
Seccombe's essay in Twelve Bad Men (1894), where a bibliography is given.
This work is celebrated chiefly for an essay on a new form of notation described in the present day as Dasia Notation.
240-241, should be compared with what is said of them by Macaulay in his Essay on Bacon, and by Campbell, Lives, ii.
Everything 1 See Macaulay's Essay on Bacon.
This was done by Bacon, though he seems to hint that in so doing he was 4 Macaulay's Essay.
Under the former head it is pointed out (i.) that the fundamental principle of Locke's Essay, that all our ideas are product of sensation and reflection, is briefly stated in the first aphorism of the Novum Organum, and (ii.) that the whole atmosphere of that treatise is characteristic of the Essay.
His well-known essay on the nature and moral influence of heathenism (1822) was published by Neander, with high commendation, in his Denkwiirdigkeiten; and his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1824) secured him a foremost place amongst the most suggestive, if not the most accurate, Biblical interpreters of that time.
His views on inspiration were indicated in his work Die Propheten and ihre Weissagungen (1860), in his essay on the "Alte Inspirationslehre," in Deutsche Zeitschrift fiir christliche Wissenschaft (1850), and in his Gesprdche fiber die vornehmsten Glaubensfragen der Zeit (1846; 2nd ed., 1867).
The manuscripts of A Florentine Tragedy and an essay on Shakespeare's sonnets were stolen from his house in 1895.
Segal's essay on the relation between Mishnic and Biblical Hebrew (Jew.
See the essay of Schlatter, Sprache u.
Toy, Judaism and Christianity (London, 1890; with Schechter's essay in his Studies , pp. 28 3-3 0 5); H.
David Hume, on the other hand, based his essay on The Natural History of Religion (1757) on the conception of the development of human society from rude beginnings, and all modern study is frankly founded on the general idea of Evolution.'
From the historical and linguistic side attention was first fixed upon the myth, and the publication of the ancient hymns of the Rig Veda led Max Milner to seek in the common elements of Aryan thought for the secrets of primitive religion (essay on Comparative Mythology, 1856).
But cp. Dr Farnell's essay " On the Place of the Sonder-Gottcr in Greek Polytheism," in Anthropological Essays presented to Edward Burnett Tylor (1907), p. 8r.
p. 331; and Soderblom's essay in the Rev. de l'hist.
Max Muller, Essay on Comparative Mythology (1856); Chips from a German Workshop (1867 onwards); Lectures on the Science of Language (2 vols., 1861-64); Contributions to the Science of Mythology (2 vols., 1897); cf.
In 1845 he obtained the Hulsean Prize for his essay The Influence of Christianity in promoting the Abolition of Slavery in Europe.
Leaving the nation and its statesmen to fight out their freedom, he hurried away to Weimar, and thence to the quiet Thuringian town of Rudolstadt, where in the inn "Zum Ritter," out of sight of soldier and sound of drum, he wrote, helped by books from the Weimar library, his essay for the degree of doctor in philosophy.
The essay, which must be treated as an episode or digression from the direct path of Schopenhauer's development, due to the potent force of Goethe, was written at Dresden, to which he had transferred his abode after the rupture with his mother.
His essay was awarded the prize, and the author elected a.
He had sent to the Danish Academy at Copenhagen in 1839 an essay "On the Foundations of Morality" in answer to a vaguely worded subject of discussion to which they had invited candidates.
His essay, though it was the only one in competition, was refused the prize on the grounds that he had failed to examine the chief problem (i.e.
And for the same reason new editions of his works were called for - a second edition of his degree dissertation in 1847, of his Essay on Colours and of The Will in Nature in 1854, a third edition of The World as Will and Idea in 1859, and in 1860 a second edition of The Main Problems of Ethics.
His Swedish Argus (1733-1734) was modelled on Addison's Spectator, his Thoughts about Critics (1736) on Pope's Essay on Criticism, his Tale of a Horse on Swift's Tale of a Tub.
His most important geological essay was that entitled Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes (Phil.
Askwith's essay (Epistle to the Galatians, its Destination and Date, 1899) advocates ingeniously the south Galatian theory, and W.
He made considerable contributions to scientific literature, and among his publications were: An Analytical View of Newton's Principia, with Lord Brougham (1855); an Essay on the Stability of a given State of Motion, which won the Adams' prize in 1877; and treatises on the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies, on Analytical Statics, and on the Dynamics of a Particle.
Mdbius, in his most admirable essay Die Auster and Die Austernwirthschaft, has pointed out the proper means of preserving natural beds, declaring that, if the average profit from a bed of oysters is to remain permanently the same, a sufficient number of mother oysters must be left in it, so as not to diminish the capacity of maturing.
Toulmin Smith, English Gilds (published by Early English Text Society), with essay by L.
In 1815, when the Corn Laws were under discussion, he published his Essay Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock.
The reasonings of the essay are based on the theory of rent which has often been called by the name of Ricardo; but the author distinctly states that it was not due to him.
Ricardo states in this essay a set of propositions, most of them deductions from the theory of rent, which are in substance the same as those afterwards embodied in the Principles, and regarded as characteristic of his system, such as that increase of wages does not raise prices; that profits can be raised only by a fall in wages and diminished only by a rise in wages; and that profits, in the whole progress of society, are determined by the cost of the production of the food which is raised at the greatest expense.
In 1820 he contributed to the supplement of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (6th ed.) an "Essay on the Funding System."
According to the version which appears to be the earliest: " Juvenal was the son or ward of a wealthy freedman; he practised declamation till middle age, not as a professional teacher, but as an amateur, and made his first essay in satire by writing the lines on Paris, the actor and favourite of Domitian, now found in the seventh satire (lines 90 seq.).
in 1770, and in 1771 won the prize for the English essay, the only university prize open in his time for general competition.
The ingenious essay of Mr R.
His Bristo is but a youthful essay, but his second piece, 0 Cioso, is almost a comedy of character, though both are Italian even in the names of the personages.
Like the most learned men of his time he was superstitious and a firm believer in "praesagious impressions"; his Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences: Wherein an Account is Given of many Remarkable and very Memorable Events which have Hapned in this Last Age, Especially in New England (1684) shows that he believed only less thoroughly than his son in witchcraft, though in his Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits (1693) he considered some current proofs of witchcraft inadequate.
In 1804 Thomas Young (Essay on the " Cohesion of Fluids, " Phil.
His essay contains the solution of a great number of cases, including most of those afterwards solved by Laplace, but his methods of demonstration, though always correct, and often extremely elegant, are sometimes rendered obscure by his scrupulous avoidance of mathematical symbols.
One curious production was an essay in popular illustrated literature, which was almost unique in ancient times.
Lightfoot in his essay on "The Christian Ministry" (Comm.
See Iightfoot's essay for Cyprian's contribution, as also for that of the Clementines, which fix on the twofold position of James at Jerusalem, as apostle and bishop, as bearing on apostolic succession in the episcopate.
She wrote, and published anonymously, an essay questioning the Morality of Tractarianism, which was attributed to John Henry Newman.
Columbae (Edinburgh, 1874); an Essay on the Coronation Stone of Scone (Edinburgh, 1869);; and Memorials of the Family of Skene of Skene (Aberdeen, 1887).
The most important are: the Treatise of Taxes and Contributions (1662, 1667 and 1685); Political Arithmetic, presented in MS. to Charles II., but, because it contained matter likely to be offensive to France, kept unpublished till 1691, when it was edited by Petty's son Charles; Quantulumcunque, or a Tract concerning Money (1682); Observations upon the Dublin Bills of, Mortality in 1681 and the State of that City (1683); Essay concerning the Multiplication of Mankind (1686); Political Anatomy of Ireland (1691).
In 1811 he produced a valuable essay entitled Memoria mineralogica sulla Valle di Fassa in Tirolo; but his most important work is the Conchiologia fossile subapennina con osservazioni geologiche sugli Apennini, e sul suolo adiacente (2 vols., 4to, Milan, 1814), containing accurate details of the structure of the Apennine range, and an account of the fossils of the Italian Tertiary strata compared with existing species.
Either in quest of paradox, or actually unable to recognize the real tendencies of Pope's Essay on Man, he entered upon its defence against the Examen of Jean Pierre de Crousaz, in a series of articles (1738-1739) contributed to The Works of the Learned.
Warburton's life was also written by John Selby Watson in 1863, and Mark Pattison made him the subject of an essay in 1889.
Weissenborn (1858-1862, containing an introductory essay on Livy's life and writings; new edition by M.
Besides contributing various historical and critical essays to the North American Review, including a remarkable essay on the Polity of the Puritans, he published in 1849, again anonymously, a second novel, entitled Merry Mount, a Romance of the Massachusetts Colony.
Partly owing to this essay, Motley was appointed United States minister to Austria in 1861, a position which he filled with great success until his resignation in 1867.
The essay by Charles Harding on Molluscs used for Food or Bait, published by the committee of the London International Fisheries Exhibition (1883), may be consulted as to the economic questions connected with the sea mussel.
In February 1855, staying at Sarawak, in Borneo, he wrote an essay "On the Law which has regulated the Introduction of New Species" (Ann.
It was, in fact, a cautious statement of a belief in evolution, and for three years from the time that he wrote the essay he tells us that "the question of how changes of species could have been brought about was rarely out of my mind."
Finally, in February 1858, when he was lying muffled in blankets in the cold fit of a severe attack of intermittent fever at Ternate, in the Moluccas, he began to think of Malthus's Essay on Population, and, to use his own words, "there suddenly flashed upon me the idea of the survival of the fittest."
Darwin in England at once recognized his own theory in the manuscript essay sent by the young and almost unknown naturalist in the tropics, then a stranger to him.
Under the advice of Sir Charles Lyell and Sir Joseph Hooker, the essay was read, together with an abstract of Darwin's own views, as a joint paper at the I.innean Society on the 1st of July 1858.
In the section belonging to moral philosophy, we find De remediis utriusque fortunae, a treatise on human happiness and unhappiness; De vita solitaria, a panegyric of solitude; De olio religiosorum, a similar essay on monastic life, inspired by a visit to his brother Gherardo in his convent near Marseilles.
He published an Essay on Medals in 1784, and in 1785, under the pseudonym of "Robert Heron," his bold but eccentric Letters of Literature depreciating the classical authors of Greece and Rome.
In literature and oratory he was more distinguished, receiving a Boylston prize for declamation, and two Bowdoin prizes for dissertations, the first essay being on "The Character of Socrates" and the second on "The Present State of Ethical Philosophy" - both rather dull, formal, didactic productions.
Two years later he published Five Pieces of Runic Poetry, translated from the Islandic. In 1763 he edited the earl of Surrey's poems with an essay on early blank verse, translated the Song of Solomon, and published a key to the New Testament.
6 represent excerpts respectively from the essay of an Alexandrian scribe, and a triple fragment of Jewish apocalypse, the analysis above given will be found the exponent of a real logical sequence.
Reginald Heber early showed remarkable promise, and was entered in November 1800 at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he proved a distinguished student, carrying off prizes for a Latin poem entitled Carmen seculare, an English poem on Palestine, and a prose essay on The Sense of Honour.
A translation of this sketch by William Freake, minister, was published at London, 1629; and in 1852 it was reprinted in Glasgow, with an introductory essay by Edward Irving.
When ten years old he wrote a semi-humorous tract on the immateriality of the soul; he was interested in natural history, and at the age of twelve wrote a remarkable essay on the habits of the " flying spider."
He entered Yale College in 1716, and in the following year became acquainted with Locke's Essay, which influenced him profoundly.
and he there composed the treatises on which his reputation as a philosophical theologian chiefly rests, the essay on Original Sin, the Dissertation concerning the Nature of True Virtue, the Dissertation concerning the End for which God created the World, and the great work on the Will, written in four months and a half, and published in 1754 under the title, An Inquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions Respecting that Freedom of the Will which is supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency.
Edwards's controversy with the Arminians was continued in the essay on Original Sin, which was in the press at the time of his death.
Closely connected with the essay on Virtue is the boldly speculative Dissertation on the End for which God Created the World.
He seems to waver between the opinion that finite individuals have no independent being and the opinion that they have it in an infinitesimal degree; and the conception of " degrees of existence " in the essay on Virtue is not developed to elucidate the point.
His Essay on the Trinity, first printed in 1903, was long supposed to have been withheld from publication because of its containing Arian or Sabellian tendencies.
It contains in fact nothing more questionable than an attempted deduction of the orthodox Nicene doctrine, unpalatable, however, to Edwards's immediate disciples, who were too little speculative to appreciate his statement of the subordination of the " persons " in the divine " oeconomy," and who openly derided the doctrine of the eternal generation of the Son as " eternal nonsense "; and this perhaps was the original reason why the essay was not published.
C. Smyth published from a copy Observations Concerning the Scripture Oeconomy of the Trinity and Covenant of Redemption (New York, 1880), a careful edition from the manuscript of the essay on the Flying Spider (in the Andover Review, January 1890) and " Some Early Writings of Jonathan Edwards," with specimens from the manuscripts (in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, October, 1895).
The long sought for essay on the Trinity was edited (New York, 1903) with valuable introduction and appendices by G.
P. Fisher under the title, An Unpublished Essay of Edwards's on the Trinity.
Morris, 1872; 4th ed., 1885); an essay (1861) on the authenticity and order of Plato's writings, crowned by the Imperial Academy of Vienna; Schiller als.
The earliest philosophers, or "physiologers," had occupied themselves chiefly with what we may call cosmology; the one question which covers everything for them is that of the underlying substance of the world around them, and they essay to answer this question, so to speak, by simple inspection.
Locke's Essay is undoubtedly, in its intention, a contribution to the theory of knowledge.
His first literary essay (1828) was a romantic poem entitled Algiso, o la Lega Lombarda (new ed., Milan, 1876), and in the following year he produced a Storia di Como in two volumes (Como, 1829).
Of more importance was his first essay in satiric prose which arose directly from the position which he occupied as domestic author in the Temple household.
Sir William had in 1692 published his Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning, transplanting to England a controversy begun in France by Fontenelle.
Such data as he displays may well have been derived from no authority more recondite than Temple's own essay.
Except in his unsuccessful essay in history, he never, after the mistake of his first Pindaric attempts, strays beyond his sphere, never attempts what he is not qualified to do, and never fails to do it.
The more or less contemporary lives of Swift, most of which contain a certain amount of apocrypha, are those of Lord Orrery (1751); Dr Delany's Observations on Orrery (1754); Dean Swift's Essay upon the Life of Swift (1755); and Thomas Sheridan's Life (of 1785).
Dr Barrett produced an Essay upon the Early Life of some value (in 1808).
Lecky; Tale of a Tub; Battle of the Books; Critical Essay upon the Faculties of the Mind; The Bickerstaff Pamphlets, &c., ed.
Dennis); A Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue; Hints towards an Essay on Conversation; Character; Directions to Servants; and Autobiographical Fragment, ed.
Cittadella, Storia della Dominazione Carrarese in Padova (Padua, 1842); and Horatio Brown's brilliant essay on "The Carraresi" in his Studies in Venetian History (London, 1907).
In 1833 he made a series of translations from the Spanish, with an essay on the moral and devotional poetry of Spain, and these were incorporated in 1835 in Outre-mer: a Pilgrimage beyond the Sea.
As Regards Protoplasm contains an attempted refutation of the Essay on the Physical Basis of Life by Huxley.
degree with first-class honours in both classics and mathematics in 1813, he next year obtained the chancellor's prize for a Latin essay, and shortly afterwards was elected to a fellowship in his college, Keble, Newman and Arnold being among his contemporaries.
The essay On the Incarnation is the locus classicus for the presentation of the teaching of the ancient church on the subject of salvation.
An essay in which he denies the identity of St Denis of Paris and St Denis the Areopagite (1641), caused a very lively controversy from which his opinion came out victorious.
His Opera varia, where this essay is to be found, as well as a description in Latin verse of his voyage from Paris to Rome in 1590, have appeared in 5 vols.
P. Rigaud, Historical Essay on the First Publication of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia (1838); Edleston, Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, &c. (1850); Sir D.
Ball, Essay on Newton's Principia (1893).
He also wrote an Essay touching the Gravitation or Nongravitation of Fluid Bodies (1673); Difficiles Nugae, or Observations touching the Torricellian Experiment, &c. (1675); and a translation of the Life of Pomponius Atticus, by Cornelius Nepos (1677).
Hayward's essay (from the Quarterly Review, 1878) in "Eminent Statesmen" (1880).
The Edinburgh Review of April 1903 contains a luminous essay; and Mr Bryce has a chapter on Acton in his Studies of Contemporary Biography (1903).
Three years afterwards the author published, under the title of Litterature et philosophic melees, a compilation or selection of notes and essays ranging and varying in date and in style from his earliest effusions of religious royalism to the magnificent essay on Mirabeau which represents at once the historical opinion and the critical capacity of Victor Hugo at the age of thirty-two.
The "Essay on Friendship" was written for him.
In 1328 his attempt to overthrow Mortimer failed, and he quietly made his peace with the king; a second essay against Mortimer was more successful.
De Morgan's other principal mathematical works were The Elements of Algebra (1835), a valuable but somewhat dry elementary treatise; the [[Essay]] on Probabilities (1838), forming the 107th volume of Lardner's Cyclopaedia, which forms a valuable introduction to the subject; and The Elements of Trigonometry and Trigonometrical Analysis, preliminary to the Differential Calculus (1837).
Among these may be mentioned the Treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus (1842); the Elementary Illustrations of the Differential and Integral Calculus, first published in 1832, but often bound up with the larger treatise; the essay, On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics (1831); and a brief treatise on Spherical Trigonometry (1834).
He was the author, however, of an Essay on Mineralogical Classification, published in 1828, and contributed various memoirs on the tides to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society between 1833 and 1850.
Among Whewell's other works - too numerous to mention - reference must be made to writings popular in their day, such as the Bridgewater Treatise on Astronomy (1833), and the essay, Of the Plurality of Worlds (1854), in which he argued against the probability of planetary life, and also to the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers (1859-1861), to the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England (1852), to the essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridge (1845), to the important edition and abridged translation of Grotius, De jure belli et pacis (1853), and to the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow (1860).
Educated at Winchester College and Brasenose College, Oxford, he graduated in .1778, and took the chancellor's prize for an English essay in 1779.
Bruce's Apologetics, and the present writer's Essay towards a New Theology.
Among his songs may be mentioned The Treaty and The New Roof, a Song for Federal Mechanics; and the best known of his satirical pieces are Typographical Method of conducting a Quarrel, Essay on White Washing and Modern Learning.
This was not, however, the first of his literary productions; his critical essay on Goethe's.
This essay, which has been called the text-book of the philosophy of speech, first clearly laid down that the character and structure of a language expresses the inner life and knowledge of its speakers, and that languages must differ from one another in the same way and to the same degree as those who use them.
The most significant of those early revelations is the Essay concerning Toleration (1666), which anticipates conclusions more fully argued nearly thirty years later.
At the end of nearly twenty years the issue was given to the world as Locke's now famous Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
His journals and commonplace books in these years show the Essay in preparation.
The Essay was finished there, and a French epitome appeared in 1688 in Le Clerc's journal, the forecast of the larger work.
The famous Essay concerning Human Understanding saw the light in the spring of 1690.
The Essay was the first book in which its author's name appeared, for the Epistola de Tolerantia and the Treatises on Government were anonymous.
Above all, the great Essay was assailed and often misinterpreted by philosophers and divines.
A second edition of the Essay, with a chapter added on " Personal Identity," and numerous alterations in the chapter on " Power," appeared in 1694.
Meantime the Essay on Human Understanding and the Reasonableness of Christianity were becoming more involved in a wordy warfare between dogmatists and latitudinarians, trinitarians and unitarians.
John Toland, in his Christianity not Mysterious, had exaggerated doctrines in the Essay, and then adopted them as his own.
Other critics of the Essay entered the lists.
Henry Lee, rector of Tichmarch, criticized the Essay,.
The Essay itself was meanwhile spreading over Europe, impelled by the name of its author as the chief philosophical defender of civil and religious liberty.
The French translation of the Essay by Pierre Coste, Locke's amanuensis at Otes, was issued almost simultaneously with the fourth edition.
He now turned to the Epistles of St Paul, and applied the spirit of the Essay and the ordinary rules of critical interpretation to a literature which he venerated as infallible, like the pious Puritans who surrounded his youth.
Fresh adverse criticism of the Essay was reported to him in his last year, and the book was formally condemned by the authorities at Oxford.
(7) Further Considerations concerning Raising the Value of Money (1695) (occasioned by a Report containing an " Essay for the Amendment of Silver Coins," published that year by William Lowndes, secretary for the Treasury).
To which is prefixed an Essay for the understanding of St Paul's Epistles by consulting St Paul himself (1705-1707, posthumous).
Philosophy.-(I) An Essay concerning Human Understanding, in four books (1690).
(2) A Letter to the Bishop of Worcester concerning some passages relating to Mr Locke's Essay of Human Understanding in a late Discourse of his Lordship's in Vindication of the Trinity (1697).
This was Locke's first article in the Bibliotheque of Le Clerc; his other contributions to it are uncertain, except the Epitome of the Essay, in 1688).
- It has been truly said that all Locke's writings, even the Essay on Human Understanding itself, were occasional, and " intended directly to counteract the enemies of reason and freedom in his own age."
The practice of universal toleration amidst increasing religious differences was an application of the conception of human understanding which governs his Essay.
His contribution may be taken as either an introduction to or an application of the Essay on Human Understanding.
- The Essay Concerning Human Understanding embodies Locke's philosophy.
The " Introduction " to the Essay is the keynote to the whole.
To inquire with critical care into " the original, certainty and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion and assent," is accordingly Locke's design in this Essay.
The last book of the Essay, which treats of Knowledge and Probability, is concerned more directly than the three preceding ones with Locke's professed design.
It contains few references to the foregoing parts of the Essay, and it might have appeared separately without being much less intelligible than it is.
" Idea " is thus a leading term in the Essay.
" Some parts of this third book," concerning Words, Locke tells his friend Molyneux, " though the thoughts were easy and clear enough, yet cost me more pains to express than all the rest of my Essay.
The Fourth Book, about Knowledge proper and Probability, closes the Essay.
In the foregoing part of the Essay he had dealt with " ideas " and " simple apprehension," here he is concerned with intuitive " judgment " and demonstrative " reasoning," also with judgments and reasonings about matters of fact.
This factor is not prominent in Locke's Essay.
Criticism of the presuppositions implied in those facts - by Kant and his successors, and in Britain more unpretentiously byReid, all under the stimulus of Hume's sceptical criticism - has employed philosophers since the author of the Essay on Human Understanding collected materials that raised deeper philosophical problems than he tried to solve.
- The Essay concerning Human Understanding has passed through more editions than any classic in modern philosophical literature.
In addition to those criticisms which appeared when Locke was alive, among the most important are Leibnitz's Nouveaux Essais sur l'entendement humain - written about 1700 and published in 1765, in which each chapter of the Essay of Locke is examined in a corresponding chapter by Leibnitz; Cousin's " Ecole sensualiste: systeme de Locke," in his Ilistoire de la philosophie au X VIII e siecle (1829); and the criticisms in T.
The Essay, with Prolegomena, biographical, critical and historical, edited by Professor Campbell Fraser and published by the Oxford Clarendon Press in 1894, is the only annotated edition, unless the Nouveaux Essais of Leibnitz may be reduced to this category.
An essay composed by him in 1673 on the true and apparent diameters of the planets furnished Newton with data for the third book of the Principia, and he fitted numerical elements to J.
In 1665 he published an essay entitled Tentamina physicotheologica de Deo, dedicated to Archbishop Sheldon, who in 1667 appointed him one of his chaplains.
118 seq.; Galloway, Studies in the Philosophy of Religion; Bergson, Essai sur les donnees immediates de la conscience; James, The Will to Believe; Fonsegrive, Essai sur le libre arbitre; Renouvier, Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique pure; Boutroux, La Contingence des lois de la nature; Noel, La Conscience du libre arbitre; Boyce Gibson, Essay in Personal Idealism on "The Problem of Freedom."
The clearness which we seek iri vain from Cumberland is found to the fullest extent in Locke, whose Essay on the Human Understanding (1690) was already planned when Cumberland's treatise appeared.
More, among others, had imitated Descartes in a discussion of the passions, and Locke's essay had given a still stronger impulse in the same direction; still, Shaftesbury is the first moralist who distinctly takes psychological experience as the basis of ethics.
He also turned Pope's Essay on Man and Klopstock's Messiah into Icelandic. Benedikt Grondal tried the same experiment with Homer in his Ilion's Kvcedi, c. 1825.
The subject of the lunar librations was treated by Lagrange w i th great originality in an essay crowned by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1764; and he filled up the lacunae in his theory of them in a memoir communicated to the Berlin Academy in 1780.
Brown, Inequalities in the Moon's Motion produced by the Action of the Planets (the Adams prize essay for 1907).
Euler in his prize essay of 1748; a series of lunar observations extending over fifty years; some interesting researches in terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, in the latter of which he detected a regular diurnal period; and the determination of the places of a great number of stars, including twelve separate observations of Uranus, between 1765 and its discovery as a planet.
His essay on the inundations of the Val di Chiana was printed in Raccolta d'autori the trattano del moto dell' acque, iv.
vi., 1818); The History of the Rights of Princes in disposing of Ecclesiastical Benefices and Church Lands (Lond., 1682, 8vo); The Life of William Bedell, D.D., Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland (1685), containing the correspondence between Bedell and James Waddesdon of the Holy Inquisition on the subject of the Roman obedience; Reflections on Mr Varillas's "History of the Revolutions that have happened in Europe in matters of Religion," and more particularly on his Ninth Book, that relates to England (Amst., 1686), appended to the account of his travels entitled Some Letters, which was originally published at Rotterdam (1686); A Discourse of the Pastoral Care (1692, 14th ed., 1821); An Essay on the Memory of the late Queen (1695); A Collection of various Tracts and Discourses written in the Years 1677 to 1704 (3 vols., 1704); and A Collection of Speeches, Prefaces, Letters, with a Description of Geneva and Holland (1713).
In his essay on the Trade of Ireland, published in 1729, Arthur Dobbs estimated the medium exports of wool, worsted and woollen yarn at 227,049 stones, and he valued the export of manufactured woollen goods at only £2353.
Macaulay's essay on Barere, (Edinburgh Review, vol.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.