There were no struggles of Church and State in its dominions: the state was also the church: the bishops and the canons of the four bishoprics (with the exception of Ermeland) were priests of the Order.
After the death of his father in 1483, Nicolaus was virtually adopted by his uncle Lucas Watzelrode, later (in 1489) bishop of Ermeland.
He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.
By the second peace of Thorn, Poland recovered the provinces of Pomerelia, Kulm and Michalow, with the bishopric of Ermeland, numerous cities and fortresses, including Marien 18,000 of their 21,000 villages were destroyed, moo churches were razed to the ground, and the population was diminished by more than a quarter of a million.
These had already been installed at Poltusk, and were permitted, after the diet rose, to found establishments in the dioceses of Posen, Ermeland and Vilna, which henceforth became centres of a vigorous and victorious propaganda.
ERMELAND, or ERN - Land (Varmia), a district of Germany, in East Prussia, extending from the Frisches Haff, a bay in the Baltic, inland towards the Polish frontier.
Ermeland was originally one of the eleven districts of old Prussia and was occupied by the Teutonic Knights (Deutscher Orden), being made in 1250 one of the four bishoprics of the country under their sway.
The bishop of Ermeland shortly afterwards declared himself independent of the order, and became a prince of the Empire.
In 1466 Ermeland, together with West Prussia, was by the peace of Thorn attached to the crown of Poland, and the bishop had a seat in the Polish senate.
See Hipler, Literaturgeschichte des Bisthums Ermeland (Braunsberg, 1873); the Monumenta historiae Warmiensis (Mainz, 1860-1864, and Braunsberg, 1866-1872, 4 vols.); and Buchholz, Abriss einer Geschichte des Ermlands (Braunsberg, 1903.) 1 Emerka and Fridla (Beowulf, Quedlingburg Citron.), Aki and Etgard (Vilkina Saga).
It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and an old castle formerly the seat of the prince-bishops of Ermeland, but now used as an infirmary.
The castle founded at Heilsberg by the Teutonic order in 1240 became in 1306 the seat of the bishops of Ermeland, an honour which it retained for 500 years.
In the east, East Prussia (Ermeland excepted) is purely Protestant.
A prevailingly Roman Catholic population is still found in the district of Oppeln and the countship of Glatz, in the province of Posen, in the Polish-speaking Krezse of West Prussia, and in Ermeland (East Prussia).
Ermeland (seat at Frauenburg, East Prussia),
The town, which was the seat of the bishops of Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the law of Lubeck " by its bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League.
The chief crops are rye, oats and potatoes, while flax is cultivated in the district of Ermeland, between the Passarge and the upper Alle.
The Roman Catholics are mainly confined to the district of Ermeland, in which the ordinary proportions of the confessions are completely reversed.
July was passed in conquering the bishopric of Ermeland.
Prussia received the maritime palatinate minus Danzig, the palatinate of Kulm minus Thorn, Great Poland as far as .the Nitza, and the palatinates of Marienburg and Ermeland: 629 sq.
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