He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
The Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde) is second in order of seniority, having been founded in 1827.
General Works: C. Ritter, Erdkunde (1854-1855), xvii.; E.
-The history of maps is dealt with ably in Vivien de Saint Martin's Histoire de la geographie (Paris, 1875), and in Peschel's Geschichte der Erdkunde (2nd ed.
Volkens, "Ober die Karolinen Insel Yap," in Verhandlungen Gesellschaft Erdkunde Berlin., xxviii.
To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
For geology, Schimper, in the Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde (Berlin, 1869).
fiir Erdkunde Berlin, '' No.
Berger, Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (1903); E.
in Die Erdkunde (Berlin, 1844).
Littledale'sChokur Pass (9530 ft.) and others at altitudes ranging from 8600 to 1 In " Orographie des Kwen-lun," in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin (1891).
P. Thrige, Historia Cyrenes (1819); C. Ritter, Erdkunde, i.
Ritter, Erdkunde, V.
Erdkunde, 36, 1901, p. 80) the same is true of the southern portion also.
i° On these and other crossing places, see Ritter, Erdkunde, x.
e For the history from the time of Herodotus onwards, see Ritter, Erdkunde, 6-284.
Arabic and other writers are given in Ritter, Erdkunde x.
and Perrot, see Ritter's "Kleinasien," in his Erdkunde von Asien, Leake, Asia Minor (1824); Kiepert appendix to Franz, Fiinf Inschr.
pp. 400, &c. (London, 1882); Hugo Berger, Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen, pt.
- C. Ritter, Vergleichende Erdkunde, xv.-xvii.
General Authorities: - C. Texier, Asie Mineure (1843); P. Tchihatcheff, Asie Mineure (1853-1860); C. Ritter, Erdkunde, vols.
See Zeitschrift des Harzvereins (Wernigerode, annually since 1868); Gunther, Der Harz in GeschichtsKulturand Landschaftsbildern (Hanover, 1885), and "Der Harz" in Scobel's Monographien zur Erdkunde (Bielefeld, 1901); H.
Merzbacher have both published good monographs on the central Tian-shan, the former " Morphologie des Tien-schan," in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft far Erdkunde zu Berlin (1899) and " Forschungsreise in den zentralen Tien-schan," in Mitteilungen der geog.
Italiana (1904); P. P. Semenov (or Semyonov), in Petermanns Mitteilungen (Gotha, 1858) and in Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft far Erdkunde zu Berlin (1869); N.
After various attempts at identification (see Ritter, Erdkunde) it has apparently been correctly identified by J.
fiir Erdkunde (Berlin, 1902), No.
chap. i.; C. Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.
C. A.) See C. Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien (vol.
Drygalski, Gronland-Expedition der Gesellschaft fitr Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1891-1893 (2 vols., Berlin, 1897).
- C. Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, vol.
Large tortoises abound, and, in the `Ain el-'Arus pool, fresh-water turtles and carp. Of domestic Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.
It is possible that its 6 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.
9 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.
iÃ‚° On these and other crossing places, see Ritter, Erdkunde, x.
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