But Oswio and his son Ecgfrith greatly extended their territories towards the north and north-west, making themselves masters of the kingdoms of Strathclyde and Dalriada, as well as of a large part of the Pictish kingdom.
In 660 he married his son Ecgfrith to ZEthelthryth, daughter of the East Anglian king Anna.
Oswio died in 670 and was succeeded by his son Ecgfrith.
Two of his daughters, Saethryth and ZEthelberg, took the veil; while another, Sexburg, was married to Earconberht, king of Kent; and a fourth, Ã†thelthryth, after two marriages, with Tondberht of the South Gyrwe and Ecgfrith of Northumbria, became abbess of Ely.
They recovered their independence, however, after the defeat of Ecgfrith by the Picts in 685.
In 684 at the council of Twyford in Northumberland, Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, prevailed upon him to give up his solitary life and become a bishop. He was consecrated at York in the following year as bishop of Hexham, but afterwards he exchanged his see with Eata for that of Lindisfarne.
AEthelred married Osthryth, the sister of Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, but in spite of this connexion a quarrel arose between the two kings, presumably over the possession of the province of Lindsey, which Ecgfrith had won back at the close of the reign of Wulfhere.
lElfwine, the brother of Ecgfrith, was slain on this occasion, but at the intervention of Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, !Ethelred agreed to pay a wergild for the Northumbrian prince and so prevented further hostilities.
Five years later he built the monastery of St Peter at Wearmouth, on land granted him by Ecgfrith of Northumbria, and endowed it with an excellent library.
In 681 Wilfrid of York, on his expulsion from Northumbria by Ecgfrith, retired into Sussex, where he remained until 686 converting its pagan inhabitants.
821), king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 796, on the death of Ecgfrith, son of Offa.
If in the 7th century the successive great ~ NorthumbriansEdwin, Oswald, Oswio and Ecgfrith thumbiia.
were reckoned the chief monarchs of England, and exercised a widespread influence over the southern realms, yet each had to win his supremacy by his own sword; and when Edwin and Oswald fell before the savage heathen Penda, and Ecgfrith was cut off by the Picts, there was a gap of anarchy before another king asserted hh superior power.
Though their ancestors had been pirates as fierce as the vikings of the 9th century, and though some of their later kings had led naval armamentsEdwin had annexed for a moment Man and Anglesea, and Ecgfrith had cruelly ravaged part of Irelandyet by the year 800 they appear to have ceased to be a seafaring race.
Between the years 66r and 665 he was defeated by the Northumbrian king Ecgfrith and had to give up Lindsey.
His brother !Ethelred, who succeeded him, invaded Kent in the following year, and in 679 fought a battle on the Trent against Ecgfrith, by which he recovered Lindsey.
In 787 he associated his son Ecgfrith with him in the kingdom, and after his death (796) Ecgfrith reigned alone for a few months.
On the death of Ecgfrith the throne passed to Coenwulf, a descendant of Pybba, father of Penda.
Ecgfrith (q.v.), who succeeded on Oswio's death in 671, expelled the Mercians from Lindsey early in his reign, but was in turn defeated by them in 679, his brother 2Elfwine being slain.
From this time onwards the Humber formed the boundary between the two kingdoms. In 684 we hear of the first English invasion of Ireland, but in the following year Ecgfrith was slain and his army totally destroyed by the Picts at a place called Nechtansmere (probably Dunnichen Moss in Forfarshire).
Two of his daughters, Saethryth and ZEthelberg, took the veil; while another, Sexburg, was married to Earconberht, king of Kent; and a fourth, Ãƒâ€ thelthryth, after two marriages, with Tondberht of the South Gyrwe and Ecgfrith of Northumbria, became abbess of Ely.
On Archbishop Theodore's arrival (668) he was restored to his see, and spent in it nine years of ceaseless activity, especially in building churches, only to be driven out through the anger of King Ecgfrith's queen (677).
After Ecgfrith's death (20th May 685) Wilfrid was restored to York (much circumscribed), and Ripon (686-687).
The conquests of the Northumbrian kings in Cumbria were ephemeral; what Oswio won was lost after the death of Ecgfrith.
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